Injections & Infusions

Vitamin C Infusions As Adjunct Cancer Therapy: Which C is Bound to Win?



Uses and Functions of Vitamin C

How Much Vitamin C Do We Need

Adverse Effects of High-Dose Vitamin C

Vitamin C and Cancer Therapy

Dosing of Intravenous Vitamin C in Clinical Trials


Vitamin C is highly marketed and endorsed because of its multiple uses. It is best known for its function in strengthening the immune system, increasing collagen production, and as an antioxidant.

The discovery of Vitamin C is one of the biggest milestones in the history of improving human nutrition. Today, Vitamin C has become an immensely popular dietary supplement, however, it is still important to note that there are still a lot of people who are Vitamin C deficient.

Vitamin C is an essential micronutrient that plays an important role in numerous physiological processes in the human body. Tthe human body cannot synthesize Vitamin C, hence it must be obtained through dietary intake.

Vitamin C, a water-soluble vitamin, comes in many forms: capsules, tablets, serums, creams, and even IV infusions.

The use of vitamin C infusions is not new. In fact, way back in the 1970s, Nobel Prize winner Linus Pauling was already using high doses of oral vitamin C supplementation in patients with advanced cancer. However, it was met with criticism with regards to data collection and analysis.

But research and studies did not stop there. In fact, more and more data is becoming available to support the effectiveness of Vitamin C supplementation especially in cancer patients.  It is important to understand that IV Vitamin C can attain much higher serum levels than oral supplementation.  This is critical in evaluating the effectiveness of Vitamin C

Vitamin C is a proven indispensable nutrient that is beneficial to everyone. Here at The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ, we give you access to high-dose Vitamin C infusions coupled with quality patient care to give you just what you need. 

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IV Nutrients Infusions are a great way give yourself a nutrient boost straight to the system.

Uses and Functions of Vitamin C

Vitamin C is essential for the biosynthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and several neurotransmitters. Vitamin C is also involved in protein metabolism.

Its role in collagen synthesis making it a very vital component for wound healing. Vitamin C is also a crucial physiological antioxidant which is necessary to give rise to other antioxidants such as tocopherol.

Here are the basic functions of Vitamin C:

Specifically, Vitamin C promotes the production and/or activation of immune cells, (e.g. T-lymphocytes and natural killer cells). These cells function in fighting against pathogens and cancer cells.

How Much Vitamin C Do We Need

The recommended dietary intake for oral Vitamin C is 75-90 milligrams but research shows that to achieve health results, a minimum of 500 milligrams per day is the ideal dose. The safer upper limit is 2000mg orally. 

However, several studies have shown that high dose concentrations of Vitamin C given via infusions may be therapeutic for some illnesses, including cancer.

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IV Nutrients Infusions are a great way give yourself a nutrient boost straight to the system.

Oral Vitamin C vs Intravenous Vitamin C

Most drugs have significantly higher bioavailability when delivered via the intravenous route as opposed to the oral route. This is because all oral medicines and supplements undergo first pass metabolism (also defined as the significant reduction of the concentration of a drug before it reaches the systemic circulation), hence resulting in decreased bioavailability in the end.

The same is true with Vitamin C, however a different mechanism was noted to regulate bioavailability.

Studies have shown that with oral supplementation higher than 250mg/ day, Vitamin C bioavailability levels reach a saturation plateau, due to a coordinated action of multiple mechanisms.

However, if Vitamin C is administered intravenously, several factors contributing to that tight control is bypassed. The results were significantly different such that the same amount of Vitamin C administered intravenously may result in its six times higher concentration than when that dose was administered orally.


Adverse Effects of High-Dose Vitamin C

Though high dose Vitamin C therapy is generally tolerable and safe, with excess amounts excreted through urine, there are some adverse effects that a patient may experience once on therapy:

  • Mild headaches (more common)
  • Nausea (more common)
  • Insomnia
  • Hypertension - increased BP
  • Decreased appetite
  • Abnormal urine color
  • Edema
  • Chills
  • Fatigue
  • Hyperglycemia - increased blood sugar levels
  • Dry mouth/skin

Vitamin C and Cancer

Vitamin C has been studied extensively for cancer. Pharmacokinetic studies have shown that the route of administration of Vitamin C (oral supplementation versus intravenous infusion) in cancer patients makes a big difference.

Even in the absence of sufficient and reliable clinical trial data, Vitamin C still sparks interest among researchers and physicians for its potential as an aid in cancer therapy. Its high safety profile makes it incredibly attractive for cancer treatment.

Daily Vitamin C supplementation through the oral route was noted through research to likely reduce the incidence of gastric, esophageal, oral, pharyngeal, and cervical cancer.

Numerous reports have shown that high doses of Vitamin C given as an adjunct to conventional chemotherapy drugs enhance the effect of these drugs in inhibiting cancer cell growth.

Vitamin C is known widely as an antioxidant, however infusions for cancer are generally given in high doses, promoting its pro-oxidant function. Pro-oxidant function simply refers to the capability of Vitamin C to illicit cell death in cancer cells without adversely affecting normal cells.

Other than the known complications of intravenous Vitamin C in those with renal impairment or glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, high dose intravenous vitamin C appears to be remarkably safe.

High-dose intravenous Vitamin C has been shown to significantly prolong the survival of patients and it has been used for decades as a complementary, alternative, and adjuvant medicine in clinics.

In patients with colon cancer, it was subsequently noted that high doses of Vitamin C increased the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs, resulting to lower dosages of oxaliplatin and irinotecan.

Oral Vitamin C was given as part of an antioxidant therapy for a study involving patients with ovarian cancer. In addition to oral antioxidant therapy, the patients were also given intravenous Vitamin C. Normalization of CA-125 levels were noted as early as after the first cycle of chemotherapy.

In a review conducted on nine cases of cancer with differing stages, the regular administration of large doses (25 – 100 grams per day) of intravenous Vitamin C was documented.

Deterioration in clinical condition upon withdrawal of Vitamin C therapy was noted, as well as survival beyond prognosis and improvement in quality of life among those who continued therapy.

Safe co-administration with and improved tolerance towards conventional chemotherapy were also noted. In another study involving 14 patients undergoing chemotherapy for cancer, it was observed that intravenous Vitamin C was generally well-tolerated, despite transient adverse effects during and after the infusions.

Pharmacokinetic profiles for pre-and post-chemotherapy suggested that tissue uptake of Vitamin C increases after chemotherapy, with no concomitant increase in urinary oxalic acid excretion.

Three patients with different types of cancer reported unexpected transient stable disease and a better quality of life attributed to increased energy and functionality.

Another clinical trial involving patients with ovarian cancer randomized patients to receive Vitamin C or standard chemotherapy.

Results showed an 8.75 month increase in progression-free survival - an improved trend in overall survival in those receiving Vitamin C intravenously.

Though these results need to be replicated and verified further, current information of the effect of Vitamin C infusions on cancer patients are already noteworthy and promising.

The practical information that most research provided could be used to direct future clinical trials to objectively determine the effect of Vitamin C infusions on specific cancer types at specific dosages


Dosing of Intravenous Vitamin C in Clinical Trials

In several mouse models, intravenous Vitamin C was already noted to have a synergistic effect on chemotherapy for pancreatic cancer, giving clinical promise.

Clinical trials on patients with advanced pancreatic adenocarcinoma, a dosing of 15 to 125g twice weekly along with the drug gemcitabine resulted to a mean survival time of 13 ± 2 months.

Patients with stage III / IV ovarian cancer were given 75 to 100 g of intravenous Vitamin C twice weekly for 12 months, resulting to an 8.75 month increase in progression-free survival.

In another trial involving patients having various cancer types (lung, rectum, colon, bladder, ovary, cervix, tonsil, breast, biliary tract), a different way of dosing and treatment was applied.

An infusion equal to 1.5g/kg body weight was infused three times (with at least one day apart) on weekdays during weeks when chemotherapy was administered (but infusion is not given on the same day as IV chemotherapy), and any two days with at least one day apart during weeks when there was no chemotherapy given. Significant improvement in energy and functionality was noted.

Patients with glioblastoma received 15-125g of intravenous Vitamin C three times a week for seven weeks during the radiation phase, and two times a week during the adjuvant phase. This resulted to a progression-free survival of 13.3 months and an average overall survival of 21.5 months.

In advanced stage non-small cell lung cancer, two 75g Vitamin C infusions were given weekly up to four cycles. Results noted stable response in most patients, with disease progression in only 1 out of 14 patients receiving therapy.


Intravenous Vitamin C has been proposed as an unconventional treatment for different types of cancers since the 1950s. Studies have proven that Vitamin C is indeed promising as an adjunct therapy to chemotherapy.

There is a better outcome for cancer patients who opt to go for Vitamin C infusions compared to oral supplementation with Vitamin C.

It was noted that intravenous Vitamin C reduces tumor size, improves overall quality of life, and has a synergistic effect on chemotherapy. Aside from that, it mitigates the adverse effects associated with chemotherapy.

Experience these effects and start by booking an appointment with The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ today. This just might be the answer you need for you or your loved ones seeking a better quality of life despite the threat of the big C.

Help yourself or someone you love by offering the promise of a bigger C – Vitamin C infusions.

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IV Nutrients Infusions are a great way give yourself a nutrient boost straight to the system.

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Injections & Infusions

10 Facts About COVID-19 Antibody Testing to keep you safe


The Injection and Infusion Clinic follows protocols to support our patients in this time of the COVID-19 pandemic.

In line with safety and care standards, we’re coming up with blog posts like this one. It’s our way of informing people like you about the updates on COVID-19 and Covid-19 antibody testing.

COVID-19 is a new virus and studies have yet to reveal more about it. We’re here to share what we have researched so far about the virus. This blog refers to valid sources such as the CDC, FDA, and Mayo Clinic. 

One of the topics about COVID-19 is antibody testing. You might have heard that it’s not yet FDA-approved, since there has been no COVID-19 test approved by the FDA to this day. Although, recent studies reveal promising results of antibody tests. 

A longitudinal study conducted in the US showed that Diazyme IgM/IgG assays demonstrated low false-positive results among 235 patients who were thought to be COVID-19 free.

Another study published in September 2020 announces the development of an antibody test for the virus that causes COVID-19. The researchers from the University of Texas in collaboration with the Houston Methodist and other institutions developed the antibody test. It performed better than existing antibody tests in terms of sensitivity or accuracy. It also proved cost-efficient as it processed more plasma donor samples at a lower cost. 

Let’s uncover more facts about the antibody test to better understand its contribution to the detection of COVID-19.

1. What are the three different kinds of tests for COVID-19?

Molecular test: This includes diagnostic tests, nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT), RT-PCR, and LAMP test that can show the presence of COVID-19 in the body.

These tests are considered highly accurate and don’t require repetition for validation. RT-PCR test, which is commonly used, spots the genetic material in a sample. Healthcare practitioners perform the molecular test through nasal and throat swabs. Saliva can also be tested via spit in a tube. 

According to the CDC, the FDA approved diagnostic tests as rapid tests through the Emergency-Use Authorization (EUA). The importance of EUA will be discussed later in this blog.

Antigen test: Antigen test spots the specific proteins of COVID-19. These are also rapid diagnostic tests that are accurate. But you need to be retested with a molecular test if your result turns out negative. Like the molecular test procedure, a healthcare practitioner performs the antigen test through nasal and throat swabs. Saliva can also be tested via spit in a tube.  Antigen test though is best done in the early phases of the infection as it can be less sensitive.

Antibody test: Known as the serology test, it shows past infection from COVID-19. It doesn’t detect the virus itself. At times, you’d need a second test for an accurate result. Your blood is drawn to see any presence of infection, which may stay in your body 1-12+ weeks after your recovery.

Serology assay may also be issued to the EUA after test performance and thorough review by the FDA.

covid-19 testing-infusion-clinic-abq

2. What is antibody testing for COVID-19?

An antibody test checks for antibodies immunoglobulins M and G or IgM and IgG found in the blood. IgM is the first antibody the body creates to fight an infection.

This happens at the onset of the infection. IgG protects and helps defend your body from infections. This shows up later in the course of infection. Antibody test measures the levels of both antigens as these indicate your body’s immune response to an infection.

Antibody tests can also help in identifying people who may have developed an immune response. These people may be qualified to donate plasma. Convalescent plasma may serve as an adjunct therapy for those who are severely sick from the infection.

Antibody tests can also serve as a support to NAAT, the gold standard of COVID-19 diagnosis. Dr. Liu and research associates concluded that the IgM-IgG antibody along with the RT-PCR test improved the accuracy of COVID-19 diagnosis. This is regardless of the severity of infection. The antibody test provided an effective complement to NAAT, which had false-positive results after the onset of COVID-19 infection.

Researchers in a more current study released in October 2020 also agreed that antibody testing complements NAAT. Dr. Caturegli and co-researchers said the findings of their study “provide valuable diagnostic support in patients who test negative by NAAT but remain clinically suspicious for COVID-19.”

3. What are the types of Covid-19 antibody testing?

Binding antibodies. It doesn’t show how effective your immune system is against the COVID-19. Rather, this detects whether or not you’ve developed antibodies against the virus. 

The two specific tests that detect binding antibodies are the point-of-care (POC) test and laboratory test with the use of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or chemiluminescent immunoassay (CIA).

Neutralizing antibodies. This is performed as a second step after you tested positive for binding antibodies. It shows if your antibodies are effective in stopping the virus from letting you get another COVID-19 infection. 

The two types of neutralization tests are the virus neutralization test (VNT) and pseudovirus neutralization test (pVNT).

4. What are the limitations of Covid-19 antibody testing?

There has been no test with a 100% accuracy rate. Some of these tests may have false-positive results since they can react with other coronaviruses. Examples are the common cold and seasonal flu. Antibodies may also be undetectable a few days upon catching the virus. Antibody tests can be used 15-35 days after the onset of symptoms.


5. What is the Emergency-Use Authorization for antibody testing?

The FDA has yet to approve the COVID-19 antibody test, but they can release the EUA. The acting commissioner, Dr. Joshua Sharfstein of the FDA signed the first EUA in 2009. The following circumstances warrant its issuance:

  • Declared emergency: The FDA can release the EUA during a pandemic when there’s no time to gather all evidence about the efficacy of a test, drug, or device. 
  • Evidence suggestive of benefit to people: The FDA can release the EUA when evidence is supported by positive outcomes. 

Dr. Sharfstein is now the vice dean of the Public Health and Practice at the John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. He further mentioned one of the minimum requirements of the EUA, but not a sole standard for authorization.

It is the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks. It should be for a good reason that meets efficacy and safety minimum standards.

Thus, for the case of COVID-19 tests, the criteria include effectiveness in detecting antibodies and its potential benefits outweigh potential risks. So far, the FDA has issued more than 200 EUAs for tests at this time of the pandemic.

The FDA may review or cancel existing EUAs. It depends on the FDA’s evaluation of the product’s new information, efficacy, and safety performance. If it meets the criteria set by the FDA, only then can it be approved, cleared, and licensed.

6. Who should use covid-19 antibody testing?

It can be used on people 9-14 days after the onset of the infection. People are tested in the late phase where antibodies may have developed and are already detectable (Watson et al., 2020).

It can be offered as a support to polymerase chain reaction or antigen detection test. You can get tested if you once had symptoms of COVID-19 but you weren’t tested at that time. 

You can get tested before you undergo a medical procedure.

7. Do the presence of antibodies mean you’re immune to COVID-19?

Antibody testing shows the presence of antibodies but it doesn’t necessarily mean you are immune against COVID-19. The medical community has yet to investigate more about the body’s immunity to the virus. It’s safe to assume that even if you have positive antibodies, you may still catch the virus a second time.

8. What is the procedure for Covid-19 antibody testing?

Under a policy prescribed by the FDA, states or territories are responsible for authorizing laboratories to conduct testing. It’s best to contact your direct primary healthcare provider if they’re offering antibody tests.

The healthcare professional will get a blood sample from you. The healthcare professional will prick your finger or draw blood from a vein in your arm. Your blood sample will be sent to a laboratory for testing.

You can’t do it yourself. A healthcare professional conducts the antibody testing in an authorized medical facility.


9. What are the possible results of an antibody test?

Positive result: Antibody positive test result means COVID-19 antibodies are present in your blood.

You have been infected in the past, even if you didn’t have symptoms. As mentioned earlier, the result can also be false-positive. This means antibodies detected in your blood could be another COVID-19-related virus. 

Don’t assume you are protected from COVID-19 if you have a positive result from your antibody test. Little is still known about immunity to the virus, so it’s best to continue to follow safety protocols.

Frequently wash your hands. Wear your face mask and observe social distancing, especially in public places.

Negative result: This means you probably haven’t been infected by the COVID-19 virus. You can also have a false-negative result. This can mean your blood was collected too soon and your body still didn’t develop antibodies.

Both positive and negative results can have false readings if the antibody test itself is flawed or defective.

10. How long will it take to get the result?

This depends on the medical facility. The Well Life ABQ tests both IgG and IgM antibodies and you can receive the result within 5-7 days. 

Ongoing developments:

Antibody tests will still have to undergo the process of certification with the FDA. In the meantime, it’s allowed with the EUA issued by the FDA. 

The FDA is presently collaborating with other government agencies to further study whether a positive antibody or serologic test relates to immunity against COVID-19.

This initiative aims to determine the level of antibodies required for protection from reinfection. It also includes the length of protection and the possible factors linked to the development of an antibody. Even if these are less accurate, it can still help in the containment of contagion in high-risk and densely populated areas.

Contact Us

For more details on the antibody test for COVID-19, you may call Well Life ABQ, a direct primary care provider in Albuquerque, New Mexico at 505 585 2345. You may also click on the link for detailed costs of COVID-19 antibody testing.

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Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Injections & Infusions

What is Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder?

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Are you one of those women who’d take a sick leave from work because you feel awful before your expected monthly period?

You’re not alone. An estimated 70% to 90% of US women of reproductive age complain of premenstrual syndrome or PMS. Among these women suffering from PMS, 3% to 8% suffer from a more severe condition called Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder or PMDD.

Ketamine IV infusion may be a promising therapy for you. For more information on ketamine IV infusion, you may check our website - The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ.

Why ketamine? It targets to ease your depressive feelings whenever you experience PMDD. Your lousy mood is one of the major symptoms of PMDD.

Symptoms of PMDD:

  1. Physical: It’s a general feeling of being sick. Your head, muscles, or joints ache. Your breasts are tender and you feel bloated.

  2. Psychological: You may feel depressed, sad, or worthless. You may have bouts of mood swings, irritability, or increased anxiety.

  3. Behavioral: You may lack the energy and interest to do your usual activities. You skip a meal or binge eat as your appetite changes. You may experience either oversleeping or insomnia. There’s just no way for you to control the situation and you feel overwhelmed.

Prevalence of psychological symptoms in PMDD:

In 1997, a study was conducted to determine the link between PMDD and psychological or mood disorders. The researcher noted that women with PMDD have similar symptoms to other women suffering from psychological or mood disorders. But this doesn’t mean they can share the same kind of treatment. 

The researcher further stressed that PMDD should be differentiated from mood disorders in terms of treatment options. This should be based on biological and cognitive condition and response to treatment.

In 2013, PMDD was listed in the Diagnostic and Statistics Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th Edition (DSM-5). It’s a separate item under Depressive Disorders with a different criterion for diagnosis, depending on the severity of symptoms.

But a study reveals the existence of comorbidity with mood disorders among teenagers and young adults. Among these co-morbidities, anxiety disorder topped the rank at 47.4%. This was followed by other mood disorders 22.9%. The remaining 28.4% was somatoform or mental disorder with physical manifestations and 26.5% had no other mental disorder.

In a later study, the most frequent PMDD symptom was irritability or anger among 276 women under DSM-IV criteria for PMDD. This was followed by anxiety, lethargy, and mood swings. 

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Depressive symptoms in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Depression, anxiety, and irritability are the most studied PMDD symptoms. Because these mood disorders have been consistently observed among women with PMDD.

  • Researchers interviewed nine women in a two-year pilot study. They found out that PMDD posed a risk for major depressive symptoms. They noted that PMDD may likely be an onset leading to major depressive disorder. 
  • A study aimed to assess and determine the role of these mood symptoms in the diagnosis of PMDD. Sixty-seven women with PMDD and 75 other women answered comprehensive questionnaires. The results show that women with PMDD exhibited heightened mood symptoms. Depression ranked as the most prominent among the three mood disorders.

  • Symptoms of PMD and PMDD overlap and researchers correlated these with depression. They studied 116 women aged 18 to 40 years old. They found out that 46.6% of the women with depressive symptoms had major depression. The study further reveals that the diagnosis of major depression was significantly linked with the PMS and PMDD. Moreover, depression was increased alongside the gravity of PMS and the existence of PMDD.

Thus, researchers in another study highlighted the need for clinicians to carefully assess PMDD with major depressive disorder. They noted that future studies may be conducted to identify more appropriate treatments for PMDD women with major depression.

What causes psychological symptoms in Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder?

Psychological symptoms of PMDD are attributed to the role of neurotransmitters in the brain. These neurotransmitters are serotonin, gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA, glutamate, and beta-endorphins

Serotonin is involved with mood regulation. During the premenstrual or luteal phase, there is a decrease in serotonin levels which results in a bad mood. GABA levels decrease as well, but glutamate levels increase which are connected to PMDD. Serotonin though as a modulator leads to an increase in GABA and a decrease in glutamate

It has been extensively studied though that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and glutamate-targeting antidepressants are effective in the treatment of PMDD. Ketamine’s mechanism of action involves serotonin, GABA, and glutamate.


Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

SSRIs are known to increase serotonin levels in the brain, which is thought of as a mood booster. Participants received a continuous dose of SSRI during the luteal phase.

The review  established SSRIs as an effective first-line treatment of PMDD. Sertraline, an SSRI antidepressant revealed to be effective as a treatment for PMDD.

SSRI was significantly more effective than placebo. Another SSRI antidepressant, fluoxetine effectively treated mood and physical and social symptoms associated with PMDD.

SSRI’s response rate to treat PMDD is high as it targets irritability, mood swings, and emotional lability.

Role of ketamine in serotonin 1B receptors 

Ketamine may be a potential therapy for PMDD as it interacts with serotonin in the brain like SSRIs. Low levels of serotonin in the brain manifests in severe depression.

In an experiment, researchers saw an increase in serotonin turnover in the rat brain after ketamine administration. Using Positron Emission Testing (PET) molecular imaging, a study reveals that ketamine boosted serotonin activity in the brain of monkeys.

In the latest 2020 study, the number of serotonin 1B receptors increased with the administration of ketamine. Researchers also found out that ketamine worked among SSRI-resistant people with major depressive disorder. 

Gamma-aminobutyric acid or GABA

GABA has a possible role in PMDD. Some progesterone metabolites interact with GABA A receptors, which was tested among mice. Evidence suggests the importance of the GABA A receptor in the cause and potential treatment of mood disorders, such as PMDD. 

Preliminary findings in another study also suggest the abnormal levels of GABA+ and glutamate/mine associated with women with PMDD.

Serotonin reuptake inhibitors affect enzymes that create progesterone metabolites. This modulates GABA A receptors. SSRIs increased GABA concentrations in the brain of people with depression as a primary action

Role of ketamine in gamma-aminobutyric acid: People with depressive disorder may have altered levels of GABA A and glutamate in their brains. Ketamine reversed these neurochemical or physiological instabilities. Ketamine increased the activity of GABA A receptors in the brain, which leads to ketamine’s anti-depressive effect.


Role of ketamine in gamma-aminobutyric acid

People with depressive disorder may have altered levels of GABA A and glutamate in their brains. Ketamine reversed these neurochemical or physiological instabilities. Ketamine increased the activity of GABA A receptors in the brain, which leads to ketamine’s anti-depressive effect.


Changes in glutamate levels result from hormonal fluctuations during the menstrual period. Lower levels of glutamate lead to depressive symptoms experienced by women with PMDD. 

Role of ketamine in glutamate: Depressive symptoms during PMDD are associated with low levels of glutamate in the brain.

Ketamine has been shown to increase glutamate. Thus, infusing ketamine in the onset of PMDD symptoms may ease your mood and depressive symptoms.

  • Researchers proposed ketamine as a fast-acting antidepressant due to its effect on the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. 

  • Ketamine activates glutamate in the prefrontal of the brain as a key mechanism. This contributes to its temporary psychomimetic and sustained long-lasting antidepressant effects.

  • Estrogen and ketamine showed additive effects on AMPA receptors, which may have a role in ketamine’s therapeutic response in major depressive disorders. A subtype of ionotropic glutamate, the AMPA receptor imitates the effects of glutamate.

Interventions for Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

PMDD negatively impacts your life due to its physical, psychological, and behavioral symptoms.

The treatments available for you are SSRIs, hormonal therapy, psychotherapy, and supplements. Other therapies include proper diet or nutrition and exercise.

Psychological or mood symptoms during PMDD have been treated with SSRIs. SSRIs are fast-acting.

They are effective and have been shown to significantly improve psychological symptoms at the luteal phase of women with PMDD. It also improved the women’s quality of life.

Ketamine has been shown to interact with serotonin in the brain. Moreover, ketamine helps moderate the activity of GABA A receptors and increases the production of glutamate, which have abnormal levels in PMDD.

Best of all, ketamine has been used for people with major depressive disorder, who have been resistant to SSRIs

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder

Ketamine IV infusion, a potential therapy for PMDD

Ketamine’s mechanism of action is complex but studies have supported its antidepressant effects. Ketamine IV infusion for PMDD can be a promising therapy to relieve you of your mood symptoms.

You may consult with us on the appropriate intervention for you. Or you may visit us at the Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ for any ketamine-related concerns. Our ketamine-certified staff have been safely doing more than 2,000 infusions since 2017. Call us at 505 455 4300.

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inflammatory bowel disease (3)
Injections & Infusions

The Perfect Support for Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

inflammatory bowel disease

What is Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)?

Unknown to many, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be very debilitating and can even progress into a life-threatening condition.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) is a collective term for two types of chronic inflammatory conditions in the gastrointestinal tract: (1) ulcerative colitis and (2) Crohn’s Disease.

All the organs in the gastrointestinal tract work altogether in the breakdown of food particles, absorption of nutrients and excretion of waste in the human body.

The presence of inflammation within any area of the gastrointestinal tract disrupts these interrelated processes.

In the event of an inflammatory process, one of the most affected aspects is the absorptive capacity of the body towards food. As a result, malnutrition is common in patients with inflammatory bowel disease.

It is therefore not surprising that a whooping 20-85% of patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are clinically malnourished or underweight.

The good news is, The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ can help. But first, let us educate ourselves with regards to IBD to be able to appreciate what intravenous nutritional therapy offers - especially to patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.

In this article, we will cover the following:

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Overview, Causes, Risk Factors

inflammatory bowel disease (2)

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Overview, Causes, Risk Factors

There is no directly identified cause for inflammatory bowel disease. However, it is noted to be both autoimmune and immune-mediated: meaning to say the body’s immune system attacks its own cells even without the presence of an infection.

Genetics plays a significant role in inflammatory bowel disease. Hence, you may be largely predisposed to develop the disease if you have a parent or sibling diagnosed with IBD.

There are also some foods that may play a role in the development of IBD. The Western diet (composed of meat, fat, sugar, synthetic additives, and processed foods) is identified as an important risk factor for IBD.

Research has it that there are two ways that food might have a significant role in IBD. First, the food could have a direct effect on the gut, or second, the food could disrupt the microbial balance in the gut, hence disrupting the gut mucosa, ultimately leading to inflammation.

Aside from genetics and food, risk factors for the development of IBD include:

  • Age (people with IBD are usually diagnosed before 30 years old),
  • Race / ethnicity (the risk is highest in those with Caucasian or Ashkenazi Jewish descent)
  • Cigarette smoking
  • Use of nonsteroidal inflammatory medications (e.g. Naproxen, Ibuprofen, Diclofenac)

Inflammation is a good thing: if it is directed towards infection. Chronic inflammation is another thing - and it is bad news especially if it is self-destructive and concerns the gastrointestinal tract.

The chronic inflammation common in both conditions (ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease) results in a myriad of symptoms which include:

  • diarrhea (because of the inability to absorb water)
  • abdominal pain and abdominal cramps (likely due to bowel obstruction and bleeding ulcers)fever and fatigue (secondary effect from diarrhea and infection)
  • weight loss (due to inability to absorb nutrients from food)
  • anorexia (due to persistent abdominal discomfort)
  • blood in the stool (depending on the location and extent of ulcerations)

Types of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Ulcerative colitis

In ulcerative colitis, chronic inflammation causes the formation of ulcerations in the innermost lining of the rectum, extending upward towards the colon (large intestine). The areas damaged are continuous with one another. 

Crohn’s Disease

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The treatment for IBD includes aminosalicylates, corticosteroids, immunomodulators, and the newly approved “biologics” (Centers of Disease Control, 2020). Severe IBD may warrant surgical interventions.

But as much as these sets of drugs and medicines are vital for IBD patients, so is the maintenance of nutrition.

inflammatory bowel disease (3)

Nutritional Aspects in Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn’s Disease

Although many kinds of food are implicated in the causation of IBD, there is still no definitive data to establish as to whether the Western diet specifically predisposes to ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease (Kelly and Fleming, 1995).

We should be aware however, that the kind of diet we might be eating needs a major overhaul.

A balanced diet still plays a major role in prevention, as cliché as it may sound.

For patients already diagnosed with IBD and concomitant malnutrition, it is critical to specifically include nutritional therapy in its management.

Malnutrition in IBD is due to mechanisms such as anorexia, malabsorption, increased nutrient loss, increased energy requirements, and drug-nutrient interactions.

With these problems in mind, there is no doubt the best way to deliver nutrients into a patient with IBD is through a route that bypasses the gastrointestinal tract.

Parenteral nutrition is also known as IV nutritional therapy. It is simply an infusion packed with vitamins and nutrients to make these readily available to the body.

It is not meant to cure the underlying disease or to replace the ideal diet and pharmacologic intervention. But it is a vital part of quality of life, since patients with IBD are not able to get the full range of nutrients from the food they eat.

Because of the nature of the disease, a lot of research studies promote the inclusion of parenteral nutrition in the management of IBD.

Parenteral nutrition is a temporary measure which helps maintain nutrition as well as vitamin/mineral status on top of conventional medical therapy. This is also immensely helpful especially for ulcerative colitis or Crohn’s disease patients who are awaiting possible surgical interventions.

On top of that, nutrition delivered via IV is 100% bioavailable to the patient. In patients with Crohn’s disease wherein frequent surgical bowel resections may result in short bowel syndrome, the use of parenteral nutrition is given on a long-term basis to maintain nutrition.

Research further shows that the right nutrition can induce remission, maintain remission, and prevent relapse in patients with Crohn’s disease.

The mechanisms are unclear but may due to the intestinal adaptive response to "bowel rest" (since nutrients are delivered via IV), immunologic effects, and of course - nutritional factors.

Furthermore, it was also noted that even though parenteral nutrition was associated with remission, relapse frequently occurs in patients with Crohn’s disease when normal food intake is resumed.

In essence, these researches further support that intravenous nutritional therapy may have a fundamental place in the hierarchy of treatment in IBD, and that more research is necessary to establish the specific benefits and mechanisms associated with it.

The advantages of IV nutritional therapy in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease can never be overemphasized. It is a primary need – regardless of the extent of the disease.

inflammatory bowel disease (4)

Risks and Contraindications of IV Nutritional Therapy

There are only two main risks involved in the administration of IV nutritional therapy.

First, infection can occur through the IV insertion process (which is in essence a risk if you go for any IV infusion therapy).

The best way to avoid this is to have the therapy at a trusted clinic such as The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ which has licensed medical professionals that can guarantee safe practice of IV-line insertions. We are even qualified and safely able to access central lines such as port-a-caths.

Second, because of the tendency of IBD to induce a hypercoagulable state (otherwise known as an unusually increased tendency toward blood clotting), the use of parenteral nutrition predisposes further to the formation of venous thrombosis at the catheter site.

Nutritional solutions tend to be sticky and concentrated. Hence it is particularly important to follow your clinician’s advice regarding the dosing and interval of parenteral nutrition, and to not neglect the diet and pharmacologic therapy that comes along with it.

There is only one contraindication to IV nutritional therapy, and that is a reported allergic reaction towards specific ingredients that may be included in parenteral nutrition. The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ is well prepared to manage any emergency.

To avoid this, patients are advised to relay to their healthcare provider any history of allergic reactions. Knowing more about the patient history will allow the clinic to take the necessary precautions.

Research so far has noted that there is no documented allergic reaction to the amino acid or dextrose component of nutritional solutions, hence IV nutritional therapy can be customized by eliminating specific additives.


IV nutritional therapy is not a “magic elixir” that can solve nutritional problems overnight. And while it is an add-on therapy for healthy people, it is one vital component of the overall management of people with IBD who suffer from nutritional gaps.

IV nutritional therapy gives a special kind of chance to people with IBD. With it being given intravenously, the patient is given the opportunity to obtain nutrients directly.

With the limitations set to these patients by their medical condition, IV nutritional therapy offers a promise even a proper oral diet could not give.

Aside from resting their gut and giving it a chance to recover, the patient still enjoys the nutrients that he or she needs.

These patients are not in it to enjoy a youthful glow and supple skin (though these may be a bonus once IV nutrition therapy is started). These patients desperately need these nutrients for survival, and more importantly, a better future.

Though it sounds so good to get started as soon as possible, make sure you are visiting a clinic with qualified professionals at The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ.

We make sure you are in good hands.

Give yourself or your patient the best chance for a better quality of life.

Contact us for an IV nutrition therapy now. And see the big difference it can make.

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Injections & Infusions, Peptides

10+1 Benefits You Need to Know About NAD+ for anti aging


Do you want to slow down your body’s aging process and boost your youthful energy?

Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide (NAD+) naturally occurs as a cellular compound in the body, which is vital to life. It aids in the efficient transport of energy from the food you eat into the cells of your body.

NAD+ has two precursors, namely nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) and nicotinamide riboside (NR). The latter is a new generation B3 vitamin that boosts NAD+ of your body’s metabolic factor.

NAD+ restores your cell’s youthful function as it turns off genes that speed up the aging processes. It also promotes the repair of your DNA, protects your tissues, and thus prolongs your lifespan.

A pharmacologic review was conducted to determine drugs that help improve or delay aging. The result of the study reveals NAD+ precursors as a promising anti-aging drug. It may improve your organ function and strengthen your resistance against diseases, too.

NAD+ comes in various forms. One of the more convenient ways is an NAD+ patch. It’s available at the Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ.

Watch a video of Nurse Practitioner, Katherine Devine, as she demonstrates how the NAD+ patch is used. While the patch is convenient, it is less effective than an infusion and can cause local irritation. The preferred route is dependent on your individual response.

Discover the 10+1 benefits of NAD+

Builds your body’s resiliency and protects you from stress.

Have you been feeling sluggish lately? Low levels of NAD+ have this effect since your body has reduced the production of cell energy.

Boosting your NAD+ with NR promotes vigor and increases endurance since it prevents the decline of cell energy.

  • NAD+ levels decline as you age, which causes changes in your metabolism. It also increases your risk of developing diseases. Based on a 2019 study, restoring NAD+ levels promoted health and extended lifespan.
  • As a form of vitamin B3, oral intake of NR a precursor of NAD+ boosted the NAD+ levels in mice. This effectively delayed late-stage disease progression by inducing mitochondrial regrowth (Khan et al., 2014).
  • NAD+ depletion may be due to genotoxic stress. It’s when the genetic information in a cell is damaged which can lead to cancer. The researchers observed an increase of Nampt and mitochondrial NAD+ in rodents after 48 hours of fasting.
  • Nampt is an NAD+ biosynthetic enzyme. Increased Nampt serves to protect against cell death and mitochondrial NAD+ levels that impact cell survival.

Extends your lifespan.

Researchers explained that reduced NAD uptake is related to many physical aging processes. NAD precursors such as NMN and NR protect the body against aging-related diseases.

The researchers further noted that boosting NAD metabolism can extend lifespan. NAD+ has also emerged as a factor in enhancing oxidative metabolism that promotes healthy aging and extended the life span of worms.

NAD+ intermediates NMN and NR can boost the system by restoring NAD+ and lessen physical symptoms of aging. This supports the new studies that NAD+ intermediates can be a promising and effective anti-aging therapy.

NAD+ activates a key enzyme called sirtuins which regulates genes of aging. Activated sirtuins with NAD+ supplementation may be an intervention for anti-aging.

Sirtuins turn off certain genes that contribute to aging. These are the management of blood sugar, fat storage and synthesis, and inflammation (Kotas et al., 2013).

Improves your cognitive function

NAD+ reduces oxidative cell damage in the brain. It can be a promising therapeutic strategy for age-related degenerative diseases, which can be further customized based on a person’s condition. An example is Alzheimer’s disease.

In a study, NR exhibited the ability to protect brain cells among old-age mice. The 5-6-month-old mice were made to develop Alzheimer’s disease. They were then given NR until they reached 10-11 months.

Through a laboratory test, the researchers discovered NR may have improved the cognitive function of the mice.

NAD+ with sirtuin activation counteracts the progression of neurodegenerative diseases and it may also be an effective anti-aging intervention.

Reduces your cravings for food, drugs, and alcohol

A study shows that addiction to food undergoes the same process as addiction to drugs and alcoho.

NAD+ helps with food, drugs, and alcohol problems through its mechanism of action. It has been shown to initiate cellular repair and regeneration in neuropsychiatric conditions such as addiction.

A study further reveals the significance of NAD+ in these addictive disorders. The researcher claimed that intravenous NAD+ treated over 104 people addicted to alcohol and various drugs.

NAD+ also completely removed the addictive symptoms. Thus, NAD+ may flush addictive substances in your system, curb your cravings, and reduce your withdrawal symptoms.

Suppresses your weight gain associated with aging

Food addiction has been linked to obesity. NAD+ may help with your food addiction and it may also maintain your weight as you age.

Researchers experimented on mice in a 12-month study. The mice were given oral NMN which synthesized NAD+ in the tissues.

The results show that it curbed age-associated increase in weight and improved insulin levels and plasma lipid.

The researchers also noted enhanced energy uptake and promoted physical activity.
NR the precursor of NDA+ boosts oxidative metabolism and protects against obesity brought about by a high-fat diet.

Mice were given NR in the test, which showed an increase in their muscle endurance. The mice also exhibited improved performance.

Thus, NR as a natural vitamin could be a nutritional supplement to address age-related and metabolic disorders indicated by mitochondrial breakdown (Canitó et al., 2013).

Potential therapeutic agent for diabetes

NMN, as an intermediate of NAD+ could be a potential therapeutic agent for diabetes, Alzheimer’s, and cardiovascular disease.

An earlier study conducted by researchers of the Washington State University School of Medicine supports this claim.

The diabetic mice received NMN supplements. The researchers restored the normal blood sugar metabolism, which suggested NMN as a potential prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes.

Potential therapeutic agent for heart disease

Researchers in a mice test concluded that NAD+ boosters and sirtuin activators with its mRNA-regulated anti-aging mechanisms have the potential to prevent and treat vascular diseases associated with aging.

Evidence suggests that boosting NAD+ levels promoted an increase in blood flow and the growth of new blood vessels. This protects against age-related enlargement or thickening of the walls of the heart.

Potential therapeutic agent for cancer

Other than preventing neurodegeneration and metabolic dysfunction, keeping NAD+ at optimum levels may be important in preventing cancer formationIt may prevent and treat liver cancer, and aging-related tumors.

Makes you sleep better

NAD+ resets the body’s internal clock due to its effect on the circadian rhythm. The sleep-wake cycle depends on the body’s reaction to light and dark. This signals you when to wake up or sleep or feel hungry.

Maintaining the sirtuins or NAD+ levels is ideal for the circadian rhythm. Thus, NAD+ may promote better sleep.

Improves your muscle health

A recent study was conducted to investigate the effects of increasing NAD+ levels on metabolic health. The researchers gave NR supplements to 113 overweight or obese participants.

After six weeks, the results reveal that the participants increased skeletal muscle and lean mass. The participants also decreased fat mass.

Enhances your mood

Researchers studied the effects of increasing NAD+ with NR supplements to the brain and gut microbiota. Mice with alcohol-induced depression served as test subjects.

The researchers noted an improvement in the behavior of the mice. Moreover, NR decreased inflammation in the mice’s brain.

This indicates NR as a potential anti-inflammatory. The inflammation of the brain has been associated with psychological and mood disorders, such as depression.

Is NAD+ safe?

A study found out that continuing supplementation of NAD+ precursor vitamin, NR is well-tolerated and effectively stimulated NAD+ metabolism in healthy and older adults.

It’s been studied as safe, well-tolerated, and efficiently increase NAD levels in healthy people, too. To improve NAD metabolism, it was suggested as a practical topic for nutritional intervention.

NR is non-irritating to the skin and it won’t cause the flush associated with niacin, a common form of vitamin B3. One hundred and forty healthy people participated in an 8-week study.

This study investigated the efficacy and safety of oral supplements of NR on NAD+. Participants who had NR, termed Niagen, reported no flushing.

The study also reveals that NR did not increase low-density lipoprotein or bad cholesterol.

Best way to have your NAD+

There’s a natural way to boost your NAD+ level. That’s from the food you eat. NAD+ rich foods include salmon, sardines, and mushrooms. Or NAD+ can be taken in three ways.

1. You can drink it as a supplement, put it on your skin as a cream or patch, or as an infusion. The challenge with oral supplements is absorption and bioavailability. It is also the least effective among the other forms.

nad infusion

2. Infusions are the most bioavailable. They can be time-intensive with the standard 500mg dose taking 3-4hours.


3. A more affordable and easy way is a patch. The effect lasts up to three days. How hard could it be?

Here’s a video of ABQ Business podcast host, Jason Rigby on his NAD+ patch do-it-yourself experience:

To know the best option for your NAD+ booster, visit us at the Infusion and Injection Clinic of ABQ at 8400 Osuna Road NE, Suite 5C
Albuquerque, NM 87111 or call us at 505 445 4300.

We offer both a NAD patch and infusion. We recommend the infusion for the most impact, but do find the patch to be a possible adjunct to regular infusions.

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The Best About Vitamin C Infusion for COVID-19 Immunity
Injections & Infusions

How to Boost Your Immunity with Vitamin C Infusions and Fight COVID-19

The Best About Vitamin C Infusion for COVID-19 Immunity

Vitamin C Infusion & COVID-19

Vitamin C Infusion is also currently the subject of studies in the treatment of various diseases. It has been included in clinical trials for COVID-19 positive patients as early as February 2020. This is due to the activity that Vitamin C exhibits against the inflammatory sequelae of infections.

Unlike the OTC oral version, a Vitamin C Infusion is injected into the bloodstream through a vein in your arm. This form of Vitamin C bypasses the absorption in the stomach and intestines.

Higher doses and direct bioavailability dramatically increases the serum levels of Vitamin C where more and more research are leaning into its efficacy for COVID-19

Vitamin C

Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is one of the water-soluble vitamins that can be readily absorbed by your body. You are unable to synthesize ascorbic acid thus it must be obtained from external sources. The most common is through your daily diet.

It scavenges free radicals, thereby acting as an antioxidant. This makes it an effective anti-inflammatory agent. It enhances your cellular immunity, as well as your vascular integrity.

Because of these properties, Vitamin C has been consistently studied as part of the treatment and management of sepsis. Sepsis is the body’s response to an overwhelming infection wherein the body’s immune system causes it to attack itself. At times, it can cause multiple organ failure.

Characterized by systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, sepsis is a life-threatening condition. It can be precipitated by bacterial and viral infections such as COVID-19.

The link between Vitamin C Infusions for COVID-19

The Link between Vitamin C Infusions
for COVID-19

COVID-19 is a novel or new virus such that we still know little about the illness and its treatment. As of today, the medical community races against time to formulate a vaccine or and effective treatment regimen.

Although there is yet to be a conclusive evidence that Vitamin C infusions can cure a patient suffering from COVID-19, the good news is a this is very safe and results from current studies may come out as promising.

Many hospitals, have already incorporated Vitamin C infusions into their COVID-19 treatment regimens including this protocol developed at Eastern Virginia Medical School

Previous researches have shown that high doses of Vitamin C infusions may help patients with sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome or ARDS, which are complications of COVID-19. Vitamin C infusion serves as an adjuvant therapy or an additional treatment to the primary treatment.

Vitamin C for the management of Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs)

Vitamin C for the management of
Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs)

Because of the high potential to act effectively against systemic inflammation, Vitamin C has been a constant part of preventive medicine.

This is especially true in the management of URIs. It has not been shown to prevent respiratory infections. Rather, Vitamin C helps to shorten the duration of the infection and alleviate associated symptoms by its mechanism of action. 

Moreover, it is given in high doses acts as a prooxidant. Thereby it improves alveolar fluid clearance thus reducing respiratory symptoms due to inflammation. It also serves as an antioxidant, which improves epithelial cell functions.

This infusion may become a vital part of the management of COVID-19 infections. It continues to be a subject for further study along with other potential treatments.

6 benefits of Vitamin C-IV Infusion for COVID-19 patients

6 Benefits of Vitamin C Infusion for COVID-19

Serious infections tend to deplete the body of antioxidants. Vitamin C replenishes these. It also helps the immune system to fight against certain diseases, viruses, and bacteria.

Vitamin C is not a primary treatment of COVID -19. But, recent studies have shown that Vitamin C Infusions as an adjunctive care intervention can benefit patients in six ways:


Side effects are limited or non-existent


Patients recover earlier than expected


Patients spend fewer days on mechanical ventilators


Patients have better chances of survival


Patients’ stay in the ICU is shorter


Patients spend less on the treatment

Prevention is always important and the race has been on for an effective vaccine. Vitamin C infusions or oral vitamin C has been well-studied for its role in prevention of infections, so the official recommendation from many sources is to not take it due to lack of evidence.

If you do take oral Vitamin C, it’s for boosting your immunity, a proven health benefit. It also reduces your risk of many chronic diseases. It also has very few side effects, so the risk of taking it is very low. Loose stools is about the only concern with oral Vitamin C.

As this pandemic stretches on, with no formal treatment regimen in sight, Vitamin C intravenous infusions continue to look promising. For more information about Vitamin C Infusion Therapy and our Immunity Booster infusion with Vitamin C and Zinc, click below to book an appointment or call the Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ at 505-445-4300 today!

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Important Things That You Need To Know About Infusion Therapy
Injections & Infusions

Important Things That You Need To Know About Infusion Therapy

Important Things That You Need To Know About Infusion Therapy

What is infusion therapy?

Infusion therapy is the practice of administering fluids through the veins. There are two components needed for infusion therapy:

  • A needle which is used to access the blood vessel
  • A bag (IV drip bag) containing fluids that is carefully dripped into the patient’s blood vessel

This form of fluid administration was first used in the 1830s during the cholera epidemic. Victims that contracted cholera would lose high volumes of body fluids, which needed to be replenished as soon as possible.

The issue was that most severely ill patients could not take these fluids through their mouths, due to drowsiness or active vomiting. Additionally, even if they could ingest these fluids orally. it would still require time before their fluid levels to return to normal. As a result, the practice of intravenous fluid administration was created and used in these critically ill patients, leading many of them to survive.

Today, intravenous fluids are essential in managing hospital patients. Blood transfusions and the need for medications like antibiotics or anesthesia are often administered using infusion therapy.

You may have even heard of people like Madonna, Katy Perry, and Adele undergoing infusion therapy. Despite what rumours may say, these celebrities weren’t critically ill, nor did they receive it in preparation for surgical procedures. Rather, the infusion therapy they underwent is known as intravenous vitamin drips.

Intravenous vitamin drips follow the same principle as in-hospital intravenous fluid administration. They can be given as an adjunct health supplement, or as a method of treating certain conditions.

Who needs infusion therapy? Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ

Who needs infusion therapy?

Drugs, blood products, vitamins, and other medications are possible for infusion therapy. This practice has been around for a long time and has been utilized by celebrities, as well as people with specific needs. 

Intravenous pain medications have been used to treat migraine, fibromyalgia, and chronic pain.  The Myer’s cocktail - an intravenous vitamin infusion, has also been used to manage these conditions. Other uses for IV vitamin infusions include being used to manage hyperthyroidism and other hormonal conditions.

Other infusions support the oxidative stress of surgery, improve the appearance of skin, improve energy, etc..

Some clinics offer ketamine infusions for treatment-resistant depression and for chronic pain. Ketamine infusions have been studied extensively, with researchers noting that IV ketamine infusions are effective for treating depression. (Taiminen, 2017). Some people may also find ketamine infusions as an effective relief agent for treating chronic pain

Besides being used to treat diseases, infusion therapy can be helpful in boosting everyday activities. Examples include people that require infusion therapy after intense physical activity, or ingesting too much alcohol. In these instances, IV vitamin therapy has been shown to quickly cure hangovers and provide quick hydration.

Women can also utilize IV vitamin therapy for aesthetic purposes. Some claim that it can keep your skin healthy and clear. Additionally, it can be used to relieve stress and rejuvenate your body.

What are the advantages of Infusion Therapy? Injection and Innfusion Clinic of ABQ

What are the advantages of Infusion Therapy?

There are many nutritional supplements and oral medications available in the market. In this section, we will take a look at how infusion therapy differs, and the advantages it has over these traditional medications.

Compared to intravenous therapy, oral medications must go through the gastrointestinal system. Before the medication enters the circulatory system, it’s potency has already been reduced by approximately 50% due to stomach digestion. 

Additionally, not everyone receives the same amount of nutrients from oral supplements. Your age, health status, genetics and other medications affect how well you absorb nutrients.

With intravenous or infusion therapy, medications are directly administered into the blood vessels. As a result, it bypasses the digestion process, allowing for up to 90% of the vitamins and other desired substances to be absorbed. This results in higher concentrations of vitamins in the body, allowing for much quicker results.

Having a migraine attack but don’t want to take a day off work? A toradol infusion can help to relieve the symptoms of a migraine, and is just one reason why people opt for infusion therapy. 

Infusion therapy is offered as an outpatient procedure, meaning you won’t have to be admitted to a hospital or go to the emergency room. In most cases, you can immediately go home after your infusion.

Some infusion clinics prioritize the comfort of their patients to ensure they get the best experience from each visit. Comfortable chairs, magazines, televisions, a window or garden view are some of the services available to patients during their infusion therapy session. 

One important advantage of infusion therapy is that it’s administered by healthcare professionals. With oral medications, compliance can become a problem. 

As infusions are performed in a clinical setting, a nurse or primary care provider can ensure you’re receiving the right amount of vitamins and medications at the right time. If the situation arises where a patient has an irregular reaction toward a specific type of drug, attention can be immediately given to them. Questions or queries can also be addressed real time. 

There are many guidelines and procedures regarding patient safety in infusion clinics. To mitigate any possible risks associated with infusion therapy, ensure that you visit a certified medical clinic.

Meet the Healthcare Team

We have completed over 2,000 infusions since opening our doors in 2017. If you want a great experience with the most knowledgeable providers, contact us to get started.

Types of Infusion Therapy The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ

Types of Infusion Therapy


The symptoms of dehydration can be mild, moderate or severe, and can also be caused by an acute illness like pneumonia.

Treatment of illnesses like the COVID-19 infection are mainly supportive, and recommend that patients are adequately hydrated. Other illnesses which manifest with vomiting, fever, and diarrhea can also result in dehydration.

Electrolyte imbalance is a common consequence of dehydration. A lack of electrolytes can result in body weakness, tremors, dizziness, and other neurologic manifestations. Fluids like Ringer’s lactate contain minerals like chloride, potassium and sodium, which can help to recover lost electrolytes.

In hospital settings and especially in emergency rooms, intravenous fluids that contain saline solutions are often used to help with dehydration. Volume depletion results in shock - a condition where there is not enough fluids circulating in the body. As a result, blood pressure goes below what is considered normal and vital organs do not receive sufficient amounts of blood. A person who is severely dehydrated would suffer from these signs, and would require IV hydration to quickly improve their condition.

Some signs and symptoms of dehydration include:

  • Thirst
  • Weakness
  • Dry mouth
  • Sunken eyeballs
  • Dizziness
  • Oliguria, a lack of urine output for more than 6 hours (Considered a serious sign of dehydration and may prompt hospital admission)

If you have mild to moderate dehydration due to intense physical activity, stress, or excessive alcohol, you can receive IV hydration therapy from either a hospital setting or an infusion clinic.

The Injection & Infusion Clinic of ABQ has a mobile healthcare option for special events. We can visit your hotel/resort the morning after a Bachelor/Bachelorette party, or any celebration for that matter to administer infusions. Aside from replenishing electrolytes and B-complex, the infusions we offer can be customized by adding Toradol for headaches, and Zofran for nausea.

Want to know more
about Hydration?

Nutrient Infusions

One of the oldest, well-known and well-studied nutrient infusions is the Myers’ Cocktail. It was developed by Dr. Myers, a physician from Maryland before he passed in the 1980s. 

Dr. Myers had several patients whose conditions improved from his nutrient infusions, hence how it got its name. The Myer’s Cocktail is composed of IV fluid with magnesium chloride, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium pantothenate, vitamin B complex, calcium gluconate, and diluted hydrochloric acid. 

This cocktail is used to manage everything from asthma, migraines, fatigue, and muscle spasms, to respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, and allergic rhinitis. There have also been cases where hyperthyroidism, dysmenorrhea, urticaria and angina improved due to the use of Myers’ Cocktail. Patients who had no other diseases but received this nutrient infusion therapy reported overall health improvement after some time. 

Its health improvement has a scientific basis. Vitamin C that is taken orally will only provide up to 25% of the initial dose you took in. As a result, the full antiviral concentrations of Vitamin C (10-15mg/dl) can only be achievable if taken intravenously. 

As well, magnesium supplements taken by mouth do not exert significant plasma changes, but if given intravenously, can exert pharmacological effects. Simply put, nutrient infusions work better than taking medications by mouth, because it increases the availability of the vitamins and minerals in your body.

In 2009, an 8 week study was conducted that compared the effect of the Myers’ Cocktail against a placebo group in patients with fibromyalgia. Compared to the placebo group, the Myer’s Cocktail group showed improvements in pain, depression, and quality of life.

As of 2002, the Myers’ Cocktail has been administered approximately 15,000 times with 800-1000 different patients benefiting from it’s concoction. That was in 2002 - at the time of writing, it is currently 2020. The number of successfully infused patients and the demand for Myers’ Cocktail in infusion clinics has increased dramatically since then.

Today, there are many variations of the Myers’ Cocktail. The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ offers a modified infusion for first timers, as well as the original Myers’ Cocktail.  You can utilize it to combat a variety of conditions, or even use it to improve your mood if you’re feeling down lately.

IV Nutrients Infusions are a great way give yourself a nutrient boost straight to the system.


Vitamin Infusions

Vitamin deficiencies are not rare and can be a consequence of a medical condition, or a side effect from taking medication. It can also occur as part of the natural aging process. 

For example, Vitamin B12 or cobalamin is important in DNA and RNA synthesis. It is essential in the production of red blood cells, hence its deficiency can cause a form of anemia.

Some causes of Vitamin B12 deficiency include:- A vegan diet - Being over the age of 60- Chronic use of antacids- Intake of metformin- Problems with absorption.

As we grow older, our bodies become inefficient at producing Vitamin D. Besides the elderly patients with chronic kidney disease can also suffer from Vitamin D deficiency. Even if you don’t have a specific vitamin deficiency, vitamin infusions are useful for improving your overall health, as stressful situations are associated with lowering vitamin levels. 

Some studies have explored the effects of specific vitamin infusions and provided Vitamin D supplementation for patients with knee osteoarthritis. After the trial, researchers noted significant improvement in the physical performance and quality of life of these patients. Vitamin C infusions have also been used by medical oncologists to lower inflammation and combat the side effects of certain types of cancer treatments (Klimant et al, 2018).

Vitamin B12, Vitamin D and Vitamin C infusions are also available in The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ


Another popular reason people undergo infusion therapy is for it’s cosmetic benefits. In addition to making you feel healthy and rejuvenated, it also makes you look good. 

One specific type of infusion therapy is known as glutathione. Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that is naturally present in our bodies. Its volume levels decline from factors such as poor nutrition, toxins from the environment, age, and stress. 

Intake of glutathione through oral means has variable and inconsistent effects. This is because the digestion and absorption of glutathione is affected by many factors during the digestion process.  As a result, glutathione infusions may be a better option if you’re looking for maximum results. 

Some of the benefits of glutathione include reducing skin wrinkles and improving skin elasticity. In some countries, it is used as a whitening agent due to its antimelagonesis properties, which can whiten dark spots and even out skin color.

Vitamin C has many health benefits such as boosting your immune system. However, not many people know that it also plays an important role regarding skin health. Vitamin C promotes synthesis of collagen, a major structural component of the skin. Additionally, it also acts as an antioxidant that combats ultraviolet skin damage.

The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ offers both Vitamin C and glutathione infusions. You can take them separately, or together as part of the Glow & Grow package designed specifically for aesthetic benefits.

Medical Conditions

Nutrient and vitamin infusions can also be used for combating sinusitis, allergies, and fibromyalgia. For certain conditions, most infusion clinics also offer intravenous medications as an alternative option, such as toradol infusions for quick relief of migraine attacks. Other conditions like depression, PTSD, and chronic pain can be improved dramatically  with ketamine infusions.

For hypertension, IV magnesium is quite effective. For diabetics, you can opt for alpha lipoic acid infusions - a type of infusion that contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties which can increase insulin sensitivity. It can also be used for the management of diabetic symptoms such as neuropathy and retinopathy (Rochette et al., 2017). 

A lot of infusion therapies mentioned earlier can also be used for specific medical conditions. The Infusion Clinic of ABQ can help you choose which infusion can work best for your condition.
Are there risks in infusion therapy? Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ

Are there risks in infusion therapy?

The first step to undergo infusion therapy is needle insertion. As needles can carry bacteria and viruses, you are always at risk of infection every time you have an IV inserted into your veins. Thus, it is very important that this procedure is done by a medically trained healthcare professional. As long as IV insertion is done properly and within a clean environment, the risk of infection is very low. 

People with specific conditions - such as chronic kidney disease or cancer should consult with their physician before receiving infusion therapy. Patients do not have adequate urine output in the later stages of chronic kidney disease, which prevents vitamins and nutrients from being adequately eliminated. As a result, fluid overload and heart failure is a high risk for people with chronic kidney disease and specific heart conditions.

Most clinics require a thorough medical history and physical examination prior to performing an infusion. Many of the risks associated with infusion therapy are minimized when done in a controlled clinical setting. By monitoring your symptoms and the infusion rate, primary care providers can prevent disasters from  occurring.

The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ is a certified medical clinic that can meet your needs. Our primary care providers are well experienced at administering infusions and can ensure your procedure goes smoothly.

We offer more than 30 different varieties of infusion therapies including fat burner injections with lipostat, and immunity boosters with Vitamin C and zinc. 

Thinking of undergoing infusion therapy? Click below to our complete list of infusion therapy services!
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What causes dehydration?
Injections & Infusions

The Perfect Summer Season Begins and Ends with Hydration

The Perfect Summer Season Begins and Ends with Hydration

Have you ever heard of Samuel Taylor Coleridge? One of his most famous lines: “Water, water everywhere, nor any drop to drink” refers to a mariner that is surrounded by the sea, yet unable to quench their thirst.

Today, our technology is so greatly advanced that obtaining fresh drinking water is no longer an issue. We have invented various processes to purify the water around us and make it potable to drink. Yet despite water being readily accessible, we still do not drink enough of it.

In 2018, a survey by Quench USA revealed the following: 

  • 80% of working Americans do not consume enough water daily. 

  • Some of the main reasons cited were a lack of thirst, and not having enough time to access it 

  • Those who live in the South tend to consume more water compared to those in the Northeast 

  • People who do not exercise on a regular basis also tend to consume less water (Goodman et al., 2013).

Why is it important to stay hydrated?

Hydration is an essential tool against COVID19.

1) It is an essential tool against COVID19.

Staying hydrated is important, especially during these uncertain times. The current pandemic has infected millions and has most of at least concerned. Keeping yourself hydrated is important for every process in our body, including our immune system, fighting off the virus and recovering from it.

In fact, The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) recently released a guideline for COVID-19 suspects or patients who are recovering at home. 

One of the key manifestations of the COVID-19 infection is fever.  At a body temperature of 102°F, we lose approximately 30 ounces of body fluid in a day. This does not include fluid loss from COVID-19 symptoms such as coughing and breathing.

Other symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite may further contribute to fluid loss. As a result, many patients who become infected are at high risk of dehydration.

Dehydration may also predispose COVID-19 patients to pneumonia, as it thickens respiratory secretions such as mucus. If not cleared, these secretions can accumulate in the lungs and make breathing difficult.

ASPEN (2020) advises recovering patients to drink small, frequent sips or 2-4 ounces of water every 15 minutes. To monitor your hydration status, check the color of your urine and how frequently you urinate. Urination should occur every 3-4 hours, and be a color shade of light yellow. 

Adding a dash of lemon or cucumber can help to improve the taste of water. Other alternatives include sugar-free electrolyte rich drinks or sports drinks with no added sugars.

Stay away from carbonated sodas and other sweetened beverages - they contain high amounts of sugar that will make you more prone to dehydration.

Even if you do not contract the infection, it is important to always stay adequately hydrated. Your body will stand a much better chance at fighting any illness.

2) It can promote weight loss.

Hydration can promote weight loss.

The role of water in regards to weight loss has been studied extensively over the years. One study involving obese individuals led to the discovery that drinking at least 2 cups of water before each meal helps with reducing weight. As drinking large amounts of water provides a sensation of fullness, it leads to less food consumption overtime (Dennis et al., 2009).

When the temperature rises, so do our cravings for cold and sweet beverages – especially during mealtimes. According to one study, the total energy intake of people who drink sugar-sweetened beverages is 7.8% higher, compared to those who drink water with their meal (Daniels & Popkin, 2010).

In some animal studies, weight loss was even directly correlated to water consumption. The more water they drank, the more weight they lost. Keeping your body hydrated is important, as dehydration leads to several mechanisms within our body that promotes weight gain, as well as increases the risk for diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Thornton, 2016)

If you’re looking to shed a few pounds this summer, start by increasing your water intake!

3) It can lower your risk for certain diseases.  

It can lower your risk for certain diseases.

Adequate hydration can lower the risk of developing specific conditions. For example, a high fluid intake has been shown to improve outcomes for patients with urolithiasis or kidney stones, as well as lower the risk of stone recurrence.

The frequency of urination is directly correlated to the amount of fluid you take in. You may have even noticed this yourself - when you drink a large amount of water, you feel a need to urinate more frequently. Water plays a vital role in keeping your urinary tract healthy.

Frequency of urination is associated with recurrent UTI in women. Those that urinate less frequently are at higher risk of developing UTI’s.

Adequate hydration is especially important for older patients. Those who are at risk for stroke - such as those with hypertension and diabetes, should drink plenty of water. Adequate fluid intake optimizes plasma osmolality and hematocrit, which plays a crucial role in preventing stroke outcomes. 

Getting enough water can also lower the risk of constipation, exercise asthma, hyperglycemic episodes, hypertension, coronary artery disease and venous thromboembolism. (Manz & Wentz ,2005).

4) It can prevent pregnancy complications.

It can prevent pregnancy complications

During pregnancy, the last thing on your mind is to keep yourself hydrated. You’re more likely to be worried about your appearance, or when the baby will be due. However, it is something that should not be ignored. Besides taking responsibility for themselves, pregnant women are also responsible for their baby, which requires plenty of energy and water. 

The amount of food you consume correlates to the amount of water you need. As pregnant women need more calories, they also require greater amounts of water. To put it into comparison, an increase of 300 calories would require an additional 300ml of fluids.

Water consumption also plays a vital role for nutrient absorption in the gut. For optimal absorption, take a glass of water alongside water-soluble vitamins such as Vitamin C, nicotinic acid, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin B6.

The total amount of fluid in the body increases during pregnancy. Blood volume increases in preparation for blood loss during childbirth, and higher amounts of fluid are also required for fetal circulation, and for adequate amniotic fluid volume (Montgomery,2002). Without sufficient amniotic fluid, a fetus will not have enough room to develop and grow, which can lead to complications.

In fact, one study on pregnant women showed that dehydration was associated with lower infant birth weight and length, compared to those who were adequately hydrated in their pregnancies. This highlights the importance of fluid intake in fetal growth and development (Mulyani et al., 2018).

In addition, inadequate amniotic fluid or oligohydramnios is associated with preterm labor (Kim et al., 2011). We advise pregnant women to consume at least 8-10 glasses a day (Montgomery, 2002).

If you’re pregnant and feel like you don’t drink enough water, don’t fret just yet! Studies show short-term mild dehydration won’t significantly affect your pregnancy (Villines & Ernst, 2018). Later on, we’ll discuss the differences between mild, moderate and severe dehydration

What causes dehydration?

What causes dehydration? Injection & Infusion Clinic of ABQ

You may not be aware of it, but you lose bodily fluids every single day. Many metabolic processes in our body require water to properly function. We lose water through our sweat, breath, urine and even feces. These are all normal everyday losses that are easily replaced by drinking and eating water-containing foods.

 When this balance is disrupted, it leads to dehydration. Excessive fluid loss or a deficiency in fluid intake can cause the body to become dehydrated. Common causes of dehydration are fever, diarrhea and vomiting, which can also be associated with infections. Other medical conditions that can cause dehydration are sepsis, hyperthyroidism, COPD and diabetes (Taylor & Jones, 2020).

Dehydration is more common than you think. Recall a time where you had too much alcohol: how did you feel? Most likely you felt dry and thirsty. This is because alcohol suppresses the action of vasopressin - also known as the antidiuretic hormone. Vasopressin prevents too much water loss by increasing the reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules.

If this action is suppressed, more water is lost through the urine, which can lead to dehydration. Additionally, our kidneys use more water in an attempt to remove the toxic by-products of alcohol. This further increases fluid loss (Jewell & Weatherspoon, 2019).

Be wary of becoming dehydrated this summer season. High temperatures and increased humidity work together to make you sweat, which can increase your risk of dehydration.

What are the signs and symptoms of dehydration?

What are the signs and symptoms of dehydration?

Dehydration manifests as different signs and symptoms depending on how much fluid is lost. Recognizing these signs in adults and infants is important so you can know when you should bring them to the clinic for hydration, or to the emergency room for immediate intervention.

Mild dehydration occurs when you have lost approximately less than 5% of total body fluids. You may not notice any symptoms besides a mild thirst or a yellow-orange to orange urine color.

For infants and children, mild dehydration occurs at <3% fluid loss. During this stage, they will appear well and alert with normal vital signs. Take care around children or infants, as their symptoms are less noticeable. 

In adults, moderate dehydration manifests as thirst, decreased urine output, dried lips, fatigue and lightheadedness.
  • In some cases, postural hypotension may occur, which is characterized by a drop of more than 20mmg Hg in your blood pressure when you stand up. If you’ve ever blacked out after standing up, chances are you were moderately dehydrated.

  • Unlike mild dehydration, the symptoms of moderate dehydration are easily recognized. If you are moderately dehydrated, you can tell something’s wrong with your body (PACO, 2015).
In pediatric patients, moderate dehydration is described as 3-9% total body fluid loss. 
  • They may become irritable due to a lack of fluids. If they’re crying, there may be fewer tears than expected. 
  • The area around their eyes may appear slightly sunken, due to a lack of water. 
  • Their pulse rate and breathing can also be rapid. 
  • Their extremities, such as the hands and feet, would be cool to touch and their urine output decreased. Intervention should be done at this point to prevent escalation to severe dehydration. 
In adults, severe dehydration is described as >10% loss of total body fluids.
  • It can manifest as increased thirst, a quickened heart rate, cool extremities, and low blood pressure. 
  • Noticeable changes in mental state are also prevalent, as they become confused about their surroundings. (PACO, 2015).
In elderly individuals, severe dehydration is especially risky. Those who are cognitively impaired will have trouble expressing themselves and their needs. As a result, be cautious not to overlook any strange behaviour. Without interference, severe dehydration can lead to seizures, heatstroke, and even death.

Severe dehydration in children requires immediate intervention.
  • At this point, they would need to have lost >9% of their total fluids.
  • They may appear lethargic and sluggish. In a worse case scenario, they may lose consciousness or faint.
  • Their heart rate can range from beating at a very slow pace, or beating rapidly.
  • For infants, their anterior fontanelles - the area above their foreheads, would be sunken.
  • Dry lips and cold extremities are also symptoms of severe dehydration.
  • Lastly, their last urine output would be more than 10-12 hours ago (Freedman & Thull-Freedman, 2008).

What can I do if I am dehydrated?

What can I do if I am dehydrated?

If you are mildly dehydrated, the solution is simple: drink more water! At times, the symptoms of mild dehydration can be so subtle that you don’t even notice them.

However, if you’re running a fever, or if you’ve just had a vomiting or diarrhea episode, don’t wait for signs and symptoms to appear before drinking - replace lost fluids as soon as possible.

If you’ve recently vomited or had diarrhea, water alone won’t make up for what’s lost. As fluid loss from the gut contains essential electrolytes like calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride,  you’ll want to replenish them as well. Mix in some salt, or drink an oral rehydration solution such as Jigsaw Electrolyte Supreme Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) to replenish lost electrolytes.

If you don’t have an ORS pack readily available in your home, you can create your own rehydration drink. Based on the guidelines given by ASPEN (2020), mix ½ teaspoon of salt, 1 cup of squeezed fruit juice (orange, apple, cranberry), and 3 ½ cups of water together.

With moderate or severe dehydration, drinking water or an ORS may not be enough to replenish lost fluids. Fluids taken this way would have to go through the gastrointestinal tract to be absorbed, which takes too much time. You may need to go to the hospital or a clinic to receive intravenous or IV fluid hydration.

In a hospital or clinic, the first thing healthcare workers do is assess your level of dehydration, in order to identify the source of the fluid loss. Severe dehydration can occur as a result of serious injuries like second or third-degree burns that span a large area of the body, or massive blood loss from a severed major artery. If you think you know the cause, make sure to let them know.

Some causes of dehydration can also be simple and easily identifiable. If you’ve been binge drinking the night before, you should disclose that information to the healthcare worker. Otherwise, you risk being sent to the ER for something completely unrelated.

Other pieces of information that are helpful are the number of times you vomited or had a loose bowel movement. This information allows the clinician to assess how much fluid is lost. You may also be asked about your last urine output, to assess the possibility of an acute kidney injury. Additional laboratory work-up may be requested, such as your electrolyte levels. 

In serious cases, intravenous access through a cannula - also known as an IV drip, would be inserted into a vein in your hand or forearm. The choice of fluid depends on many factors - for example, isotonic crystalloid fluid is used to quicken hydration and stabilize vitals.

If you have any other comorbidities like chronic kidney disease, the choice of IV fluid will differ. The most common crystalloid fluids available are normal saline and lactated ringer’s solution, which contain concentrations of glucose, potassium, sodium, and chloride.

Visiting the hospital can sound rather intimidating. However, administering an IV drip is not something you can do at home. There are many factors that come into play, which healthcare workers are trained to know.

For example, if IV fluid is given too fast, it can result in heart congestion or edema, and if given too slowly, the patient may deteriorate. In a clinic or hospital, someone can also monitor your vital signs and ensure your body tolerates IV hydration (Taylor & Jones, 2020).

The good news is that an outpatient clinic like The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ can administer IV fluids for dehydration more quickly and cheaply than the ER. Our IV hydration therapy provides you with replacement electrolytes that you need after illness, excessive perspiration or over-consumption of alcohol.

Best of all, unlike hospitals which may be operating at or above maximum capacity, our clinic offers our patients as much time, patience, and care needed to ensure a blissful recovery.

We have “water, water everywhere”, yet most of us take it for granted. Many people do not consume enough water daily, and risk dehydration. To avoid this, drink water as often as possible during the day.

If you are eating, take it before your meals to ensure your fluid levels stay balanced. For periods of intense exercise, you’ll want to hydrate before, during and after your workout. With febrile, vomiting, or diarrheal episodes, replenish lost fluids as well as lost electrolytes.

Make sure to know the causes of dehydration, take note of the symptoms, and know when to visit a clinic or hospital. At the end of the day, prevention is better than cure. Drink 8 glasses of water a day to keep the ER away!

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