The Best About Vitamin C Infusion for COVID-19 Immunity
Injections & Infusions

How to Boost Your Immunity with Vitamin C Infusions and Fight COVID-19

The Best About Vitamin C Infusion for COVID-19 Immunity

Vitamin C Infusion & COVID-19

Vitamin C Infusion is also currently the subject of studies in the treatment of various diseases. It has been included in clinical trials for COVID-19 positive patients as early as February 2020. This is due to the activity that Vitamin C exhibits against the inflammatory sequelae of infections.

Unlike the OTC oral version, a Vitamin C Infusion is injected into the bloodstream through a vein in your arm. This form of Vitamin C bypasses the absorption in the stomach and intestines.

Higher doses and direct bioavailability dramatically increases the serum levels of Vitamin C where more and more research are leaning into its efficacy for COVID-19

Vitamin C

Vitamin C, or ascorbic acid, is one of the water-soluble vitamins that can be readily absorbed by your body. You are unable to synthesize ascorbic acid thus it must be obtained from external sources. The most common is through your daily diet.

It scavenges free radicals, thereby acting as an antioxidant. This makes it an effective anti-inflammatory agent. It enhances your cellular immunity, as well as your vascular integrity.

Because of these properties, Vitamin C has been consistently studied as part of the treatment and management of sepsis. Sepsis is the body’s response to an overwhelming infection wherein the body’s immune system causes it to attack itself. At times, it can cause multiple organ failure.

Characterized by systemic inflammation and oxidative stress, sepsis is a life-threatening condition. It can be precipitated by bacterial and viral infections such as COVID-19.

The link between Vitamin C Infusions for COVID-19

The Link between Vitamin C Infusions
for COVID-19

COVID-19 is a novel or new virus such that we still know little about the illness and its treatment. As of today, the medical community races against time to formulate a vaccine or and effective treatment regimen.

Although there is yet to be a conclusive evidence that Vitamin C infusions can cure a patient suffering from COVID-19, the good news is a this is very safe and results from current studies may come out as promising.

Many hospitals, have already incorporated Vitamin C infusions into their COVID-19 treatment regimens including this protocol developed at Eastern Virginia Medical School

Previous researches have shown that high doses of Vitamin C infusions may help patients with sepsis and acute respiratory distress syndrome or ARDS, which are complications of COVID-19. Vitamin C infusion serves as an adjuvant therapy or an additional treatment to the primary treatment.

Vitamin C for the management of Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs)

Vitamin C for the management of
Upper Respiratory Infections (URIs)

Because of the high potential to act effectively against systemic inflammation, Vitamin C has been a constant part of preventive medicine.

This is especially true in the management of URIs. It has not been shown to prevent respiratory infections. Rather, Vitamin C helps to shorten the duration of the infection and alleviate associated symptoms by its mechanism of action. 

Moreover, it is given in high doses acts as a prooxidant. Thereby it improves alveolar fluid clearance thus reducing respiratory symptoms due to inflammation. It also serves as an antioxidant, which improves epithelial cell functions.

This infusion may become a vital part of the management of COVID-19 infections. It continues to be a subject for further study along with other potential treatments.

6 benefits of Vitamin C-IV Infusion for COVID-19 patients

6 Benefits of Vitamin C Infusion for COVID-19

Serious infections tend to deplete the body of antioxidants. Vitamin C replenishes these. It also helps the immune system to fight against certain diseases, viruses, and bacteria.

Vitamin C is not a primary treatment of COVID -19. But, recent studies have shown that Vitamin C Infusions as an adjunctive care intervention can benefit patients in six ways:


Side effects are limited or non-existent


Patients recover earlier than expected


Patients spend fewer days on mechanical ventilators


Patients have better chances of survival


Patients’ stay in the ICU is shorter


Patients spend less on the treatment

Prevention is always important and the race has been on for an effective vaccine. Vitamin C infusions or oral vitamin C has been well-studied for its role in prevention of infections, so the official recommendation from many sources is to not take it due to lack of evidence.

If you do take oral Vitamin C, it’s for boosting your immunity, a proven health benefit. It also reduces your risk of many chronic diseases. It also has very few side effects, so the risk of taking it is very low. Loose stools is about the only concern with oral Vitamin C.

As this pandemic stretches on, with no formal treatment regimen in sight, Vitamin C intravenous infusions continue to look promising. For more information about Vitamin C Infusion Therapy and our Immunity Booster infusion with Vitamin C and Zinc, click below to book an appointment or call the Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ at 505-445-4300 today!

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Important Things That You Need To Know About Infusion Therapy
Injections & Infusions

Important Things That You Need To Know About Infusion Therapy

Important Things That You Need To Know About Infusion Therapy

What is infusion therapy?

Infusion therapy is the practice of administering fluids through the veins. There are two components needed for infusion therapy:

  • A needle which is used to access the blood vessel
  • A bag (IV drip bag) containing fluids that is carefully dripped into the patient’s blood vessel

This form of fluid administration was first used in the 1830s during the cholera epidemic. Victims that contracted cholera would lose high volumes of body fluids, which needed to be replenished as soon as possible.

The issue was that most severely ill patients could not take these fluids through their mouths, due to drowsiness or active vomiting. Additionally, even if they could ingest these fluids orally. it would still require time before their fluid levels to return to normal. As a result, the practice of intravenous fluid administration was created and used in these critically ill patients, leading many of them to survive.

Today, intravenous fluids are essential in managing hospital patients. Blood transfusions and the need for medications like antibiotics or anesthesia are often administered using infusion therapy.

You may have even heard of people like Madonna, Katy Perry, and Adele undergoing infusion therapy. Despite what rumours may say, these celebrities weren’t critically ill, nor did they receive it in preparation for surgical procedures. Rather, the infusion therapy they underwent is known as intravenous vitamin drips.

Intravenous vitamin drips follow the same principle as in-hospital intravenous fluid administration. They can be given as an adjunct health supplement, or as a method of treating certain conditions.

Who needs infusion therapy? Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ

Who needs infusion therapy?

Drugs, blood products, vitamins, and other medications are possible for infusion therapy. This practice has been around for a long time and has been utilized by celebrities, as well as people with specific needs. 

Intravenous pain medications have been used to treat migraine, fibromyalgia, and chronic pain.  The Myer’s cocktail - an intravenous vitamin infusion, has also been used to manage these conditions. Other uses for IV vitamin infusions include being used to manage hyperthyroidism and other hormonal conditions.

Other infusions support the oxidative stress of surgery, improve the appearance of skin, improve energy, etc..

Some clinics offer ketamine infusions for treatment-resistant depression and for chronic pain. Ketamine infusions have been studied extensively, with researchers noting that IV ketamine infusions are effective for treating depression. (Taiminen, 2017). Some people may also find ketamine infusions as an effective relief agent for treating chronic pain

Besides being used to treat diseases, infusion therapy can be helpful in boosting everyday activities. Examples include people that require infusion therapy after intense physical activity, or ingesting too much alcohol. In these instances, IV vitamin therapy has been shown to quickly cure hangovers and provide quick hydration.

Women can also utilize IV vitamin therapy for aesthetic purposes. Some claim that it can keep your skin healthy and clear. Additionally, it can be used to relieve stress and rejuvenate your body.

What are the advantages of Infusion Therapy? Injection and Innfusion Clinic of ABQ

What are the advantages of Infusion Therapy?

There are many nutritional supplements and oral medications available in the market. In this section, we will take a look at how infusion therapy differs, and the advantages it has over these traditional medications.

Compared to intravenous therapy, oral medications must go through the gastrointestinal system. Before the medication enters the circulatory system, it’s potency has already been reduced by approximately 50% due to stomach digestion. 

Additionally, not everyone receives the same amount of nutrients from oral supplements. Your age, health status, genetics and other medications affect how well you absorb nutrients.

With intravenous or infusion therapy, medications are directly administered into the blood vessels. As a result, it bypasses the digestion process, allowing for up to 90% of the vitamins and other desired substances to be absorbed. This results in higher concentrations of vitamins in the body, allowing for much quicker results.

Having a migraine attack but don’t want to take a day off work? A toradol infusion can help to relieve the symptoms of a migraine, and is just one reason why people opt for infusion therapy. 

Infusion therapy is offered as an outpatient procedure, meaning you won’t have to be admitted to a hospital or go to the emergency room. In most cases, you can immediately go home after your infusion.

Some infusion clinics prioritize the comfort of their patients to ensure they get the best experience from each visit. Comfortable chairs, magazines, televisions, a window or garden view are some of the services available to patients during their infusion therapy session. 

One important advantage of infusion therapy is that it’s administered by healthcare professionals. With oral medications, compliance can become a problem. 

As infusions are performed in a clinical setting, a nurse or primary care provider can ensure you’re receiving the right amount of vitamins and medications at the right time. If the situation arises where a patient has an irregular reaction toward a specific type of drug, attention can be immediately given to them. Questions or queries can also be addressed real time. 

There are many guidelines and procedures regarding patient safety in infusion clinics. To mitigate any possible risks associated with infusion therapy, ensure that you visit a certified medical clinic.

Meet the Healthcare Team

We have completed over 2,000 infusions since opening our doors in 2017. If you want a great experience with the most knowledgeable providers, contact us to get started.

Types of Infusion Therapy The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ

Types of Infusion Therapy


The symptoms of dehydration can be mild, moderate or severe, and can also be caused by an acute illness like pneumonia.

Treatment of illnesses like the COVID-19 infection are mainly supportive, and recommend that patients are adequately hydrated. Other illnesses which manifest with vomiting, fever, and diarrhea can also result in dehydration.

Electrolyte imbalance is a common consequence of dehydration. A lack of electrolytes can result in body weakness, tremors, dizziness, and other neurologic manifestations. Fluids like Ringer’s lactate contain minerals like chloride, potassium and sodium, which can help to recover lost electrolytes.

In hospital settings and especially in emergency rooms, intravenous fluids that contain saline solutions are often used to help with dehydration. Volume depletion results in shock - a condition where there is not enough fluids circulating in the body. As a result, blood pressure goes below what is considered normal and vital organs do not receive sufficient amounts of blood. A person who is severely dehydrated would suffer from these signs, and would require IV hydration to quickly improve their condition.

Some signs and symptoms of dehydration include:

  • Thirst
  • Weakness
  • Dry mouth
  • Sunken eyeballs
  • Dizziness
  • Oliguria, a lack of urine output for more than 6 hours (Considered a serious sign of dehydration and may prompt hospital admission)

If you have mild to moderate dehydration due to intense physical activity, stress, or excessive alcohol, you can receive IV hydration therapy from either a hospital setting or an infusion clinic.

The Injection & Infusion Clinic of ABQ has a mobile healthcare option for special events. We can visit your hotel/resort the morning after a Bachelor/Bachelorette party, or any celebration for that matter to administer infusions. Aside from replenishing electrolytes and B-complex, the infusions we offer can be customized by adding Toradol for headaches, and Zofran for nausea.

Want to know more
about Hydration?

Nutrient Infusions

One of the oldest, well-known and well-studied nutrient infusions is the Myers’ Cocktail. It was developed by Dr. Myers, a physician from Maryland before he passed in the 1980s. 

Dr. Myers had several patients whose conditions improved from his nutrient infusions, hence how it got its name. The Myer’s Cocktail is composed of IV fluid with magnesium chloride, thiamine, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, calcium pantothenate, vitamin B complex, calcium gluconate, and diluted hydrochloric acid. 

This cocktail is used to manage everything from asthma, migraines, fatigue, and muscle spasms, to respiratory tract infections, sinusitis, and allergic rhinitis. There have also been cases where hyperthyroidism, dysmenorrhea, urticaria and angina improved due to the use of Myers’ Cocktail. Patients who had no other diseases but received this nutrient infusion therapy reported overall health improvement after some time. 

Its health improvement has a scientific basis. Vitamin C that is taken orally will only provide up to 25% of the initial dose you took in. As a result, the full antiviral concentrations of Vitamin C (10-15mg/dl) can only be achievable if taken intravenously. 

As well, magnesium supplements taken by mouth do not exert significant plasma changes, but if given intravenously, can exert pharmacological effects. Simply put, nutrient infusions work better than taking medications by mouth, because it increases the availability of the vitamins and minerals in your body.

In 2009, an 8 week study was conducted that compared the effect of the Myers’ Cocktail against a placebo group in patients with fibromyalgia. Compared to the placebo group, the Myer’s Cocktail group showed improvements in pain, depression, and quality of life.

As of 2002, the Myers’ Cocktail has been administered approximately 15,000 times with 800-1000 different patients benefiting from it’s concoction. That was in 2002 - at the time of writing, it is currently 2020. The number of successfully infused patients and the demand for Myers’ Cocktail in infusion clinics has increased dramatically since then.

Today, there are many variations of the Myers’ Cocktail. The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ offers a modified infusion for first timers, as well as the original Myers’ Cocktail.  You can utilize it to combat a variety of conditions, or even use it to improve your mood if you’re feeling down lately.

IV Nutrients Infusions are a great way give yourself a nutrient boost straight to the system.


Vitamin Infusions

Vitamin deficiencies are not rare and can be a consequence of a medical condition, or a side effect from taking medication. It can also occur as part of the natural aging process. 

For example, Vitamin B12 or cobalamin is important in DNA and RNA synthesis. It is essential in the production of red blood cells, hence its deficiency can cause a form of anemia.

Some causes of Vitamin B12 deficiency include:- A vegan diet - Being over the age of 60- Chronic use of antacids- Intake of metformin- Problems with absorption.

As we grow older, our bodies become inefficient at producing Vitamin D. Besides the elderly patients with chronic kidney disease can also suffer from Vitamin D deficiency. Even if you don’t have a specific vitamin deficiency, vitamin infusions are useful for improving your overall health, as stressful situations are associated with lowering vitamin levels. 

Some studies have explored the effects of specific vitamin infusions and provided Vitamin D supplementation for patients with knee osteoarthritis. After the trial, researchers noted significant improvement in the physical performance and quality of life of these patients. Vitamin C infusions have also been used by medical oncologists to lower inflammation and combat the side effects of certain types of cancer treatments (Klimant et al, 2018).

Vitamin B12, Vitamin D and Vitamin C infusions are also available in The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ


Another popular reason people undergo infusion therapy is for it’s cosmetic benefits. In addition to making you feel healthy and rejuvenated, it also makes you look good. 

One specific type of infusion therapy is known as glutathione. Glutathione is a powerful antioxidant that is naturally present in our bodies. Its volume levels decline from factors such as poor nutrition, toxins from the environment, age, and stress. 

Intake of glutathione through oral means has variable and inconsistent effects. This is because the digestion and absorption of glutathione is affected by many factors during the digestion process.  As a result, glutathione infusions may be a better option if you’re looking for maximum results. 

Some of the benefits of glutathione include reducing skin wrinkles and improving skin elasticity. In some countries, it is used as a whitening agent due to its antimelagonesis properties, which can whiten dark spots and even out skin color.

Vitamin C has many health benefits such as boosting your immune system. However, not many people know that it also plays an important role regarding skin health. Vitamin C promotes synthesis of collagen, a major structural component of the skin. Additionally, it also acts as an antioxidant that combats ultraviolet skin damage.

The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ offers both Vitamin C and glutathione infusions. You can take them separately, or together as part of the Glow & Grow package designed specifically for aesthetic benefits.

Medical Conditions

Nutrient and vitamin infusions can also be used for combating sinusitis, allergies, and fibromyalgia. For certain conditions, most infusion clinics also offer intravenous medications as an alternative option, such as toradol infusions for quick relief of migraine attacks. Other conditions like depression, PTSD, and chronic pain can be improved dramatically  with ketamine infusions.

For hypertension, IV magnesium is quite effective. For diabetics, you can opt for alpha lipoic acid infusions - a type of infusion that contains antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties which can increase insulin sensitivity. It can also be used for the management of diabetic symptoms such as neuropathy and retinopathy (Rochette et al., 2017). 

A lot of infusion therapies mentioned earlier can also be used for specific medical conditions. The Infusion Clinic of ABQ can help you choose which infusion can work best for your condition.
Are there risks in infusion therapy? Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ

Are there risks in infusion therapy?

The first step to undergo infusion therapy is needle insertion. As needles can carry bacteria and viruses, you are always at risk of infection every time you have an IV inserted into your veins. Thus, it is very important that this procedure is done by a medically trained healthcare professional. As long as IV insertion is done properly and within a clean environment, the risk of infection is very low. 

People with specific conditions - such as chronic kidney disease or cancer should consult with their physician before receiving infusion therapy. Patients do not have adequate urine output in the later stages of chronic kidney disease, which prevents vitamins and nutrients from being adequately eliminated. As a result, fluid overload and heart failure is a high risk for people with chronic kidney disease and specific heart conditions.

Most clinics require a thorough medical history and physical examination prior to performing an infusion. Many of the risks associated with infusion therapy are minimized when done in a controlled clinical setting. By monitoring your symptoms and the infusion rate, primary care providers can prevent disasters from  occurring.

The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ is a certified medical clinic that can meet your needs. Our primary care providers are well experienced at administering infusions and can ensure your procedure goes smoothly.

We offer more than 30 different varieties of infusion therapies including fat burner injections with lipostat, and immunity boosters with Vitamin C and zinc. 

Thinking of undergoing infusion therapy? Click below to our complete list of infusion therapy services!
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What causes dehydration?
Injections & Infusions

The Perfect Summer Season Begins and Ends with Hydration

The Perfect Summer Season Begins and Ends with Hydration

Have you ever heard of Samuel Taylor Coleridge? One of his most famous lines: “Water, water everywhere, nor any drop to drink” refers to a mariner that is surrounded by the sea, yet unable to quench their thirst.

Today, our technology is so greatly advanced that obtaining fresh drinking water is no longer an issue. We have invented various processes to purify the water around us and make it potable to drink. Yet despite water being readily accessible, we still do not drink enough of it.

In 2018, a survey by Quench USA revealed the following: 

  • 80% of working Americans do not consume enough water daily. 

  • Some of the main reasons cited were a lack of thirst, and not having enough time to access it 

  • Those who live in the South tend to consume more water compared to those in the Northeast 

  • People who do not exercise on a regular basis also tend to consume less water (Goodman et al., 2013).

Why is it important to stay hydrated?

Hydration is an essential tool against COVID19.

1) It is an essential tool against COVID19.

Staying hydrated is important, especially during these uncertain times. The current pandemic has infected millions and has most of at least concerned. Keeping yourself hydrated is important for every process in our body, including our immune system, fighting off the virus and recovering from it.

In fact, The American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (ASPEN) recently released a guideline for COVID-19 suspects or patients who are recovering at home. 

One of the key manifestations of the COVID-19 infection is fever.  At a body temperature of 102°F, we lose approximately 30 ounces of body fluid in a day. This does not include fluid loss from COVID-19 symptoms such as coughing and breathing.

Other symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea and loss of appetite may further contribute to fluid loss. As a result, many patients who become infected are at high risk of dehydration.

Dehydration may also predispose COVID-19 patients to pneumonia, as it thickens respiratory secretions such as mucus. If not cleared, these secretions can accumulate in the lungs and make breathing difficult.

ASPEN (2020) advises recovering patients to drink small, frequent sips or 2-4 ounces of water every 15 minutes. To monitor your hydration status, check the color of your urine and how frequently you urinate. Urination should occur every 3-4 hours, and be a color shade of light yellow. 

Adding a dash of lemon or cucumber can help to improve the taste of water. Other alternatives include sugar-free electrolyte rich drinks or sports drinks with no added sugars.

Stay away from carbonated sodas and other sweetened beverages - they contain high amounts of sugar that will make you more prone to dehydration.

Even if you do not contract the infection, it is important to always stay adequately hydrated. Your body will stand a much better chance at fighting any illness.

2) It can promote weight loss.

Hydration can promote weight loss.

The role of water in regards to weight loss has been studied extensively over the years. One study involving obese individuals led to the discovery that drinking at least 2 cups of water before each meal helps with reducing weight. As drinking large amounts of water provides a sensation of fullness, it leads to less food consumption overtime (Dennis et al., 2009).

When the temperature rises, so do our cravings for cold and sweet beverages – especially during mealtimes. According to one study, the total energy intake of people who drink sugar-sweetened beverages is 7.8% higher, compared to those who drink water with their meal (Daniels & Popkin, 2010).

In some animal studies, weight loss was even directly correlated to water consumption. The more water they drank, the more weight they lost. Keeping your body hydrated is important, as dehydration leads to several mechanisms within our body that promotes weight gain, as well as increases the risk for diabetes, cancer and cardiovascular diseases (Thornton, 2016)

If you’re looking to shed a few pounds this summer, start by increasing your water intake!

3) It can lower your risk for certain diseases.  

It can lower your risk for certain diseases.

Adequate hydration can lower the risk of developing specific conditions. For example, a high fluid intake has been shown to improve outcomes for patients with urolithiasis or kidney stones, as well as lower the risk of stone recurrence.

The frequency of urination is directly correlated to the amount of fluid you take in. You may have even noticed this yourself - when you drink a large amount of water, you feel a need to urinate more frequently. Water plays a vital role in keeping your urinary tract healthy.

Frequency of urination is associated with recurrent UTI in women. Those that urinate less frequently are at higher risk of developing UTI’s.

Adequate hydration is especially important for older patients. Those who are at risk for stroke - such as those with hypertension and diabetes, should drink plenty of water. Adequate fluid intake optimizes plasma osmolality and hematocrit, which plays a crucial role in preventing stroke outcomes. 

Getting enough water can also lower the risk of constipation, exercise asthma, hyperglycemic episodes, hypertension, coronary artery disease and venous thromboembolism. (Manz & Wentz ,2005).

4) It can prevent pregnancy complications.

It can prevent pregnancy complications

During pregnancy, the last thing on your mind is to keep yourself hydrated. You’re more likely to be worried about your appearance, or when the baby will be due. However, it is something that should not be ignored. Besides taking responsibility for themselves, pregnant women are also responsible for their baby, which requires plenty of energy and water. 

The amount of food you consume correlates to the amount of water you need. As pregnant women need more calories, they also require greater amounts of water. To put it into comparison, an increase of 300 calories would require an additional 300ml of fluids.

Water consumption also plays a vital role for nutrient absorption in the gut. For optimal absorption, take a glass of water alongside water-soluble vitamins such as Vitamin C, nicotinic acid, Vitamin B12 and Vitamin B6.

The total amount of fluid in the body increases during pregnancy. Blood volume increases in preparation for blood loss during childbirth, and higher amounts of fluid are also required for fetal circulation, and for adequate amniotic fluid volume (Montgomery,2002). Without sufficient amniotic fluid, a fetus will not have enough room to develop and grow, which can lead to complications.

In fact, one study on pregnant women showed that dehydration was associated with lower infant birth weight and length, compared to those who were adequately hydrated in their pregnancies. This highlights the importance of fluid intake in fetal growth and development (Mulyani et al., 2018).

In addition, inadequate amniotic fluid or oligohydramnios is associated with preterm labor (Kim et al., 2011). We advise pregnant women to consume at least 8-10 glasses a day (Montgomery, 2002).

If you’re pregnant and feel like you don’t drink enough water, don’t fret just yet! Studies show short-term mild dehydration won’t significantly affect your pregnancy (Villines & Ernst, 2018). Later on, we’ll discuss the differences between mild, moderate and severe dehydration

What causes dehydration?

What causes dehydration? Injection & Infusion Clinic of ABQ

You may not be aware of it, but you lose bodily fluids every single day. Many metabolic processes in our body require water to properly function. We lose water through our sweat, breath, urine and even feces. These are all normal everyday losses that are easily replaced by drinking and eating water-containing foods.

 When this balance is disrupted, it leads to dehydration. Excessive fluid loss or a deficiency in fluid intake can cause the body to become dehydrated. Common causes of dehydration are fever, diarrhea and vomiting, which can also be associated with infections. Other medical conditions that can cause dehydration are sepsis, hyperthyroidism, COPD and diabetes (Taylor & Jones, 2020).

Dehydration is more common than you think. Recall a time where you had too much alcohol: how did you feel? Most likely you felt dry and thirsty. This is because alcohol suppresses the action of vasopressin - also known as the antidiuretic hormone. Vasopressin prevents too much water loss by increasing the reabsorption of water in the kidney tubules.

If this action is suppressed, more water is lost through the urine, which can lead to dehydration. Additionally, our kidneys use more water in an attempt to remove the toxic by-products of alcohol. This further increases fluid loss (Jewell & Weatherspoon, 2019).

Be wary of becoming dehydrated this summer season. High temperatures and increased humidity work together to make you sweat, which can increase your risk of dehydration.

What are the signs and symptoms of dehydration?

What are the signs and symptoms of dehydration?

Dehydration manifests as different signs and symptoms depending on how much fluid is lost. Recognizing these signs in adults and infants is important so you can know when you should bring them to the clinic for hydration, or to the emergency room for immediate intervention.

Mild dehydration occurs when you have lost approximately less than 5% of total body fluids. You may not notice any symptoms besides a mild thirst or a yellow-orange to orange urine color.

For infants and children, mild dehydration occurs at <3% fluid loss. During this stage, they will appear well and alert with normal vital signs. Take care around children or infants, as their symptoms are less noticeable. 

In adults, moderate dehydration manifests as thirst, decreased urine output, dried lips, fatigue and lightheadedness.
  • In some cases, postural hypotension may occur, which is characterized by a drop of more than 20mmg Hg in your blood pressure when you stand up. If you’ve ever blacked out after standing up, chances are you were moderately dehydrated.

  • Unlike mild dehydration, the symptoms of moderate dehydration are easily recognized. If you are moderately dehydrated, you can tell something’s wrong with your body (PACO, 2015).
In pediatric patients, moderate dehydration is described as 3-9% total body fluid loss. 
  • They may become irritable due to a lack of fluids. If they’re crying, there may be fewer tears than expected. 
  • The area around their eyes may appear slightly sunken, due to a lack of water. 
  • Their pulse rate and breathing can also be rapid. 
  • Their extremities, such as the hands and feet, would be cool to touch and their urine output decreased. Intervention should be done at this point to prevent escalation to severe dehydration. 
In adults, severe dehydration is described as >10% loss of total body fluids.
  • It can manifest as increased thirst, a quickened heart rate, cool extremities, and low blood pressure. 
  • Noticeable changes in mental state are also prevalent, as they become confused about their surroundings. (PACO, 2015).
In elderly individuals, severe dehydration is especially risky. Those who are cognitively impaired will have trouble expressing themselves and their needs. As a result, be cautious not to overlook any strange behaviour. Without interference, severe dehydration can lead to seizures, heatstroke, and even death.

Severe dehydration in children requires immediate intervention.
  • At this point, they would need to have lost >9% of their total fluids.
  • They may appear lethargic and sluggish. In a worse case scenario, they may lose consciousness or faint.
  • Their heart rate can range from beating at a very slow pace, or beating rapidly.
  • For infants, their anterior fontanelles - the area above their foreheads, would be sunken.
  • Dry lips and cold extremities are also symptoms of severe dehydration.
  • Lastly, their last urine output would be more than 10-12 hours ago (Freedman & Thull-Freedman, 2008).

What can I do if I am dehydrated?

What can I do if I am dehydrated?

If you are mildly dehydrated, the solution is simple: drink more water! At times, the symptoms of mild dehydration can be so subtle that you don’t even notice them.

However, if you’re running a fever, or if you’ve just had a vomiting or diarrhea episode, don’t wait for signs and symptoms to appear before drinking - replace lost fluids as soon as possible.

If you’ve recently vomited or had diarrhea, water alone won’t make up for what’s lost. As fluid loss from the gut contains essential electrolytes like calcium, potassium, sodium and chloride,  you’ll want to replenish them as well. Mix in some salt, or drink an oral rehydration solution such as Jigsaw Electrolyte Supreme Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) to replenish lost electrolytes.

If you don’t have an ORS pack readily available in your home, you can create your own rehydration drink. Based on the guidelines given by ASPEN (2020), mix ½ teaspoon of salt, 1 cup of squeezed fruit juice (orange, apple, cranberry), and 3 ½ cups of water together.

With moderate or severe dehydration, drinking water or an ORS may not be enough to replenish lost fluids. Fluids taken this way would have to go through the gastrointestinal tract to be absorbed, which takes too much time. You may need to go to the hospital or a clinic to receive intravenous or IV fluid hydration.

In a hospital or clinic, the first thing healthcare workers do is assess your level of dehydration, in order to identify the source of the fluid loss. Severe dehydration can occur as a result of serious injuries like second or third-degree burns that span a large area of the body, or massive blood loss from a severed major artery. If you think you know the cause, make sure to let them know.

Some causes of dehydration can also be simple and easily identifiable. If you’ve been binge drinking the night before, you should disclose that information to the healthcare worker. Otherwise, you risk being sent to the ER for something completely unrelated.

Other pieces of information that are helpful are the number of times you vomited or had a loose bowel movement. This information allows the clinician to assess how much fluid is lost. You may also be asked about your last urine output, to assess the possibility of an acute kidney injury. Additional laboratory work-up may be requested, such as your electrolyte levels. 

In serious cases, intravenous access through a cannula - also known as an IV drip, would be inserted into a vein in your hand or forearm. The choice of fluid depends on many factors - for example, isotonic crystalloid fluid is used to quicken hydration and stabilize vitals.

If you have any other comorbidities like chronic kidney disease, the choice of IV fluid will differ. The most common crystalloid fluids available are normal saline and lactated ringer’s solution, which contain concentrations of glucose, potassium, sodium, and chloride.

Visiting the hospital can sound rather intimidating. However, administering an IV drip is not something you can do at home. There are many factors that come into play, which healthcare workers are trained to know.

For example, if IV fluid is given too fast, it can result in heart congestion or edema, and if given too slowly, the patient may deteriorate. In a clinic or hospital, someone can also monitor your vital signs and ensure your body tolerates IV hydration (Taylor & Jones, 2020).

The good news is that an outpatient clinic like The Injection and Infusion Clinic of ABQ can administer IV fluids for dehydration more quickly and cheaply than the ER. Our IV hydration therapy provides you with replacement electrolytes that you need after illness, excessive perspiration or over-consumption of alcohol.

Best of all, unlike hospitals which may be operating at or above maximum capacity, our clinic offers our patients as much time, patience, and care needed to ensure a blissful recovery.

We have “water, water everywhere”, yet most of us take it for granted. Many people do not consume enough water daily, and risk dehydration. To avoid this, drink water as often as possible during the day.

If you are eating, take it before your meals to ensure your fluid levels stay balanced. For periods of intense exercise, you’ll want to hydrate before, during and after your workout. With febrile, vomiting, or diarrheal episodes, replenish lost fluids as well as lost electrolytes.

Make sure to know the causes of dehydration, take note of the symptoms, and know when to visit a clinic or hospital. At the end of the day, prevention is better than cure. Drink 8 glasses of water a day to keep the ER away!

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